methotrexate   

GtoPdb Ligand ID: 4815

Synonyms: Abitrexate® | amethopterin | Nordimet® | Rasuvo®
methotrexate is an approved drug (FDA (1953), EMA (2016))
Compound class: Synthetic organic
Comment: Methotrexate is a folate (folic acid) analogue that is classified as an antimetabolite and antifolate drug, and a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). It is used clinically for its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. The primary action of methotrexate is inhibition of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is essential for the production of precursors that are required for de novo purine synthesis.
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2D Structure
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Physico-chemical Properties
Hydrogen bond acceptors 13
Hydrogen bond donors 5
Rotatable bonds 10
Topological polar surface area 210.54
Molecular weight 454.17
XLogP -2.67
No. Lipinski's rules broken 1
SMILES / InChI / InChIKey
Canonical SMILES OC(=O)CCC(C(=O)O)NC(=O)c1ccc(cc1)N(Cc1cnc2c(n1)c(N)nc(n2)N)C
Isomeric SMILES OC(=O)CC[C@@H](C(=O)O)NC(=O)c1ccc(cc1)N(Cc1cnc2c(n1)c(N)nc(n2)N)C
InChI InChI=1S/C20H22N8O5/c1-28(9-11-8-23-17-15(24-11)16(21)26-20(22)27-17)12-4-2-10(3-5-12)18(31)25-13(19(32)33)6-7-14(29)30/h2-5,8,13H,6-7,9H2,1H3,(H,25,31)(H,29,30)(H,32,33)(H4,21,22,23,26,27)/t13-/m0/s1
InChI Key FBOZXECLQNJBKD-ZDUSSCGKSA-N
No information available.
Summary of Clinical Use
Anti-tumour agent used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), meningeal leukemia, non-Hogkin's lymphoma, breast, lung and head and neck cancers. Also indicated in the treatment of gestational choriocarcinoma, chorioadenoma destruens and hydatidiform mole, and in the treatment of autoimmune conditions including severe psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The first oral methotraxate solution (Xatmep®) was FDA approved in April 2017 for the treatment of ALL and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA) in pediatric patients. A 2017 a paper reported that a combination of methotrexate with leflunomide relieves the immune defects and ameliorates symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis [9].
Mechanism Of Action and Pharmacodynamic Effects
The mechanism(s) of action of methotrexate are related to its action as an inhibitor of various folate pathway enzymes. Inhibition of DHFR leads to the inhibition of DNA synthesis and cellular replication, and produces an anti-proliferative outcome. Inhibition of ATIC is involved in methotrexate's anti-inflammatory effect.
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