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|LAP/TGFβ-expressing Treg cells have been identified in models of oral tolerance  and autoimmune disease . In cancers intratumoural Tregs upregulate expression of immunosuppressive molecules, including LAP/TGFβ, as one of the mechanisms that dampens the anti-tumour immune response. Anti-LAP monoclonal antibodies are expected to provide a novel approach for cancer immunotherapy. Antibody binding to LAP on LAP/TGFβ-expressing cells in the tumour microenvironment (e.g. MDSCs, Tregs, and TAMs) directs them for removal, and inhibits the release of TGFβ from LAP/TGFβ complexes . Anti-LAP biologics are predicted to target multiple immunoregulatory pathways to re-activate the immune system across a wider range of cancer types than existing immuno-oncology therapeutics. For example, see the claims in patent WO2016115345A1 'Treatment of cancer with anti-lap monoclonal antibodies' .
Inhibiting LAP/TGFβ degradation may also provide beneficial effects in fibrotic diseases, given TGFβ's powerful fibrogenic action, as well as in autoimmune diseases.