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M3 receptor

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Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 15

Nomenclature: M3 receptor

Family: Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic)

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 590 1q43 CHRM3 cholinergic receptor muscarinic 3 32
Mouse 7 589 13 3.72 cM Chrm3 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3, cardiac 70
Rat 7 589 17q12.1 Chrm3 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 49,108
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
HM4 [83-84] | Chrm-3 | M3R | cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 | cholinergic receptor | cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3, cardiac
Database Links Click here for help
Specialist databases
GPCRDB acm3_human (Hs), acm3_mouse (Mm), acm3_rat (Rn)
Other databases
Alphafold
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet
Pharos
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Selected 3D Structures Click here for help
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Structure of the M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor
PDB Id:  4DAJ
Ligand:  tiotropium
Resolution:  3.4Å
Species:  Rat
References:  55
Natural/Endogenous Ligands Click here for help
acetylcholine

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file go icon to follow link

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
NNC 11-1585 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.3 pKi 19
pKi 8.3 [19]
NNC 11-1607 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.1 pKi 19
pKi 8.1 [19]
pentylthio-TZTP Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.1 pKi 46
pKi 8.1 [46]
NNC 11-1314 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 7.1 – 7.7 pKi 19
pKi 7.1 – 7.7 [19]
xanomeline Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 7.2 – 7.4 pKi 115,124
pKi 7.2 – 7.4 [115,124]
sabcomeline Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 7.0 pKi 124
pKi 7.0 [124]
arecaidine propargyl ester Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.7 pKi 46
pKi 5.7 [46]
acetylcholine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Full agonist 5.6 pKi 18
pKi 5.6 [18]
cevimeline Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 5.6 pKi 68
pKi 5.6 (Ki 2.575x10-6 M) [68]
Description: Displacement of [3H]QNB from cloned receptor.
arecoline Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.4 pKi 46,81,92
pKi 5.4 [46,81,92]
oxotremorine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.3 pKi 46,92
pKi 5.3 [46,92]
McN-A-343 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 5.0 – 5.3 pKi 92
pKi 5.0 – 5.3 [92]
milameline Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 5.1 pKi 124
pKi 5.1 [124]
oxotremorine-M Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.1 pKi 46
pKi 5.1 [46]
pilocarpine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Partial agonist 5.1 pKi 46,92
pKi 5.1 [46,92]
acetylcholine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Full agonist 4.5 – 5.4 pKi 18,46,50
pKi 4.5 – 5.4 [18,46,50]
methylfurmethide Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 4.6 pKi 46
pKi 4.6 [46]
bethanechol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 4.2 pKi 46,92
pKi 4.2 [46,92]
carbachol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Full agonist 4.0 – 4.4 pKi 18,46,124
pKi 4.0 – 4.4 [18,46,124]
carbachol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Full agonist 4.2 pKi 18
pKi 4.2 [18]
furtrethonium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 4.1 pKi 46
pKi 4.1 [46]
methacholine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Rn Agonist 6.9 pEC50 82,92
pEC50 6.9 (EC50 1.2x10-7 M) [82,92]
(+)-aceclidine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.7 pEC50 28
pEC50 5.7 [28]
(-)-aceclidine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 5.1 pEC50 28
pEC50 5.1 [28]
iperoxo Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Agonist - - 95
[95]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
Please consult references [10,29,61,92,113,122] for further details of the activity of some of the ligands in this list.
McN-A-343 has been found to be a partial agonist at the M3 receptor [92,113]. However, in reference [61] it was found to be inactive in a study of GTPase activation.
Oxotremorine has been found to be a full agonist [29,92,113] and a partial agonist [61,92] at the M3 receptor.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
[3H]tiotropium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 10.7 pKd 94
pKd 10.7 [94]
[3H]QNB Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 10.4 pKd 45,84
pKd 10.4 (Kd 3.98x10-11 M) [45,84]
[3H]N-methyl scopolamine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Rn Antagonist 10.0 pKd 18,113
pKd 10.0 [18,113]
[3H]N-methyl scopolamine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 9.7 – 10.2 pKd 16,42,45-46,51,59
pKd 9.7 – 10.2 (Kd 2.2x10-10 – 6x10-11 M) [16,42,45-46,51,59]
[3H]darifenacin Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 9.5 pKd 99
pKd 9.5 (Kd 3.16x10-10 M) [99]
biperiden Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.4 pKd 6
pKd 8.4 (Kd 3.9x10-9 M) [6]
N-methyl scopolamine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 10.4 pKi 24
pKi 10.4 [24]
tiotropium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 9.5 – 11.1 pKi 23-24,88,105-106
pKi 9.5 – 11.1 [23-24,88,105-106]
umeclidinium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 10.2 pKi 56,94
pKi 10.2 (Ki 6x10-11 M) [56,94]
aclidinium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 10.1 – 10.2 pKi 88,106
pKi 10.1 – 10.2 [88,106]
propantheline Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 10.0 pKi 43
pKi 10.0 [43]
AE9C90CB Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.9 pKi 98
pKi 9.9 [98]
revefenacin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.8 pKi 41
pKi 9.8 (Ki 1.78x10-10 M) [41]
Description: Determined from a radioligand binding assay using membranes from CHO‐K1 cells expressing the hM3 receptor, and displacement of [3H]NMS tracer.
clidinium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Hs Antagonist 9.6 pKi 24
pKi 9.6 [24]
ipratropium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 9.3 – 9.8 pKi 24,42,88
pKi 9.3 – 9.8 [24,42,88]
scopolamine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.4 pKi 6,43
pKi 9.4 [6,43]
4-DAMP Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.3 pKi 26
pKi 9.3 [26]
4-DAMP Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 9.2 pKi 49
pKi 9.2 [49]
atropine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.5 – 9.8 pKi 20,42-43,84
pKi 8.5 – 9.8 [20,42-43,84]
[3H]4-DAMP Small molecule or natural product Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 8.8 – 9.4 pKi 17,47
pKi 8.8 – 9.4 [17,47]
dicyclomine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.0 pKi 3
pKi 9.0 (Ki 9.3x10-10 M) [3]
atropine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.7 – 9.3 pKi 18,49
pKi 8.7 – 9.3 [18,49]
darifenacin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 – 9.1 pKi 36,42,98
pKi 8.9 – 9.1 [36,42,98]
hexocyclium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKi 11
pKi 8.9 [11]
silahexocyclium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKi 11
pKi 8.9 [11]
oxybutynin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.8 pKi 22,98
pKi 8.8 [22,98]
mepenzolic acid Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 127
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.6x10-9 M) [127]
tolterodine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.4 – 8.5 pKi 36,98
pKi 8.4 – 8.5 [36,98]
UH-AH 37 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.1 – 8.2 pKi 36,121
pKi 8.1 – 8.2 [36,121]
p-F-HHSiD Small molecule or natural product Rn Antagonist 8.0 pKi 49
pKi 8.0 [49]
amitriptyline Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 7.9 pKi 100
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.28x10-8 M) [100]
hexahydrosiladifenidol Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.7 – 8.0 pKi 11,30
pKi 7.7 – 8.0 [11,30]
solifenacin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.7 – 8.0 pKi 44,98
pKi 7.7 – 8.0 [44,98]
hexahydrodifenidol Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.8 pKi 11
pKi 7.8 [11]
p-F-HHSiD Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.3 – 7.9 pKi 30,43
pKi 7.3 – 7.9 [30,43]
dosulepin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.4 pKi 100
pKi 7.4 (Ki 3.8x10-8 M) [100]
AQ-RA 741 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.2 – 7.3 pKi 26,36
pKi 7.2 – 7.3 [26,36]
AFDX384 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.2 pKi 26
pKi 7.2 [26]
himbacine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.9 – 7.2 pKi 26,48,74
pKi 6.9 – 7.2 [26,48,74]
tropicamide Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.0 pKi 20
pKi 7.0 [20]
(S)-dimetindene Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 6.9 pKi 14
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.38x10-7 M) [14]
Description: Binding to hM3 receptors expressed in CHO cells.
tripitramine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.8 pKi 75
pKi 6.8 [75]
pirenzepine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.7 pKi 49
pKi 6.7 [49]
pirenzepine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.5 – 6.8 pKi 11,26,40,43,48,121
pKi 6.5 – 6.8 [11,26,40,43,48,121]
methoctramine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.1 – 6.9 pKi 11,26,30,40,99
pKi 6.1 – 6.9 [11,26,30,40,99]
guanylpirenzepine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.2 pKi 112
pKi 6.2 [112]
otenzepad Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.1 pKi 11
pKi 6.1 [11]
VU0255035 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.1 pKi 96
pKi 6.1 [96]
otenzepad Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.0 pKi 49
pKi 6.0 [49]
muscarinic toxin 3 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist <6.0 pKi 48
pKi <6.0 [48]
lithocholylcholine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.0 pKi 18
pKi 6.0 [18]
lithocholylcholine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.0 pKi 18
pKi 6.0 [18]
muscarinic toxin 7 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist <5.0 pKi 77
pKi <5.0 [77]
ML381 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist <4.5 pKi 35
pKi <4.5 (Ki >3x10-5 M) [35]
glycopyrrolate Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 9.6 – 9.8 pIC50 103,105
pIC50 9.6 – 9.8 [103,105]
Description: Assay uses glycopyrronium bromide
solifenacin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.9 pIC50 87
pIC50 6.9 (IC50 1.308x10-7 M) [87]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
Biperiden is an approved drug antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. We have tagged the M1 subtype as the drug's primary target as affinity is 10-fold higher at this receptor subtype [6].
Allosteric Modulators
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Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
alcuronium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 5.8 pKd 46
pKd 5.8 [46]
vincamine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Neutral 5.7 pKd 46
pKd 5.7 [46]
WIN 51,708 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 5.5 pKd 64
pKd 5.5 [64]
vinburnine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Neutral 5.2 pKd 46
pKd 5.2 [46]
Gö 7874 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 5.1 pKd 63
pKd 5.1 [63]
WIN 62,577 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 5.1 pKd 64
pKd 5.1 (Kd 7.94x10-6 M) [64]
strychnine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Negative 4.2 – 5.7 pKd 46,59
pKd 4.2 – 5.7 [46,59]
thiochrome Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Neutral 4.4 pKd 60
pKd 4.4 [60]
N-benzyl brucine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 3.8 pKd 62
pKd 3.8 [62]
N-benzyl brucine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 3.8 pKd 62
pKd 3.8 [62]
brucine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 3.6 – 4.0 pKd 46,62
pKd 3.6 – 4.0 [46,62]
N-chloromethyl-brucine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 3.3 pKd 62
pKd 3.3 (Kd 5.012x10-4 M) [62]
brucine N-oxide Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Neutral 2.5 pKd 62
pKd 2.5 [62]
brucine N-oxide Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 2.5 pKd 62
pKd 2.5 [62]
VU0119498 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 5.2 pEC50 8
pEC50 5.2 (EC50 6.38x10-6 M) [8]
Primary Transduction Mechanisms Click here for help
Transducer Effector/Response
Gq/G11 family Phospholipase C stimulation
References:  9,83
Tissue Distribution Click here for help
Bladder.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  109
Esophageal smooth muscle.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  89
Lung.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  69
Ciliary muscle.
Species:  Human
Technique:  In situ hybridisation and Northern blotting.
References:  131
CNS: cerebral cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons-medulla.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  78
Salivary gland: striated and interlobular duct cells.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  97
Vestibular system.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  111
Heart: intrinsic neurons.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  39
Gastric smooth muscle.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  67
CNS: pons.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  4
CNS: basal forebrain, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  110
CNS: cerebral cortex, hippocampu, corpus striatum, olfactory tubercle, midbrain, pons-medulla, cerebellum.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunoprecipitation.
References:  128
Intestinal smooth muscle.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  15
CNS: limbic cortical regions, striatum, hippocampus, anterior thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, pontine nuclei.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  65
CNS: hippocampus.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  66
Expression Datasets Click here for help

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays Click here for help
Measurement of IP levels in human right atrial slices.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Atrial slices.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP formation.
References:  123
Measurement of PI hydrolysis in CHO cells transfected with the human M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of PI hydrolysis.
References:  19
Measurement of IP levels in CHO cells transfected with the human M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP accumulation.
References:  92,116
Measurement of ERK1/2 activity in CHO cells transfected with the human M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Increase in ERK1/2 activity.
References:  12
Measurement of IP3 levels in CHO cells transfected with the rat M3 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP3 accumulation.
References:  18
Measurement of IP1 levels in murine fibroblast cells (B82) transfected with the rat M3 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  B82 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP1 accumulation.
References:  49
Measurement of cAMP and Ca2+ levels in rat parotid cells endogenously expressing the M3 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Parotid cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation and stimulation of Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  79
Measurement of IP levels in isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP formation.
References:  90
Measurement of neuronal nitric oxide synthetase activity in CHO cells transfected with the M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Increase in NO synthetase activity.
References:  114
Measurement of ERK1/2 activity in COS-7 cells transfected with the human M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  COS-7 cells.
Response measured:  Increase in ERK1/2 activity.
References:  93
Measurement of ERK1/2 activity in human SK-N-BE2(C) cells endogenously expressing the M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  SK-N-BE2(C) cells.
Response measured:  Increase in ERK1/2 activity.
References:  53
Measurement of the effects of a ligand on the level, or rate, of binding of GTPγ35S to membranes.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  The binding of GTPγ35S to G proteins coupled to the receptor.
References:  5,58-61,63-64
Measurement of the effects of a ligand on the rate of hydrolysis of GTP by G proteins in membranes.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cell membranes.
Response measured:  Generation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]GTP.
References:  61
Physiological Functions Click here for help
Bronchoconstriction.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated lung.
References:  86
Vasodilation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Thoracic aortic rings.
References:  52
Vasodilation
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Thoracic aortic rings.
References:  52
Stimulation of pancreatic insulin and glucagon release.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  25
Modulation of salivary gland function.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  107
Modulation of excitatory transmission.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Mesencephalic slices.
References:  38
Gastric acid secretion.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Gastric parietal cells.
References:  85
Modulation of insulin secretion.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated pancreatic islets.
References:  91
Vasodilation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Pulmonary artery.
References:  73
Stimulation of urination.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  54
Contraction.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Urinary bladder detrusor muscle.
References:  21
Contraction.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Urinary bladder detrusor muscle.
References:  80
Contraction.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Esophageal smooth muscle.
References:  89
Contraction.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Ileum.
References:  15
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression Click here for help
M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit impaired gastric acid secretion.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  1-2
Mice that selectively lack the M3 receptor in pancreatic β-cells exhibit decreased glucose tolerance and impaired insulin release.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  34
M3 receptor knockout mice express an increase in basal and total energy expenditure.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  33
Isolated coronary arteries and aortic rings from M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit a reduction in agonist-induced dilation compared to wild-type mice.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  57
M3 receptor knockout mice show reduced adiposity and serum insulin and leptin levels, and exhibit reduced food intake.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  126
Lung slices from M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit reduced agonist-induced bronchoconstriction compared to wild-type mice.
This bronchoconstriction is completely abolished in M2/M3 double knockout mice.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  104
M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abolished agonist-induced or vagally-stimulated bronchoconstriction in vivo.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  31
M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit alterations in paradoxical sleep.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  37
M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit growth retardation, increased pupil size and reduced salivary secretion.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  71
Striatal slices from M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit an increase in muscarinic agonist-induced potentiation of dopamine release.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  130
M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abolished agonist-induced PLC activation and insulin secretion from pancreatic islets.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  129
M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit altered ventilatory pattern and chemosensitivity.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  7
M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit impaired salivation.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  76
M3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abolished agonist-induced pancreatic insulin and glucagon release as seen in wild-type mice.
Species:  Mouse