SST<sub>5</sub> receptor | Somatostatin receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

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SST5 receptor

Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 359

Nomenclature: SST5 receptor

Family: Somatostatin receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 364 16p13.3 SSTR5 somatostatin receptor 5 28,50
Mouse 7 362 17 A3.3 Sstr5 somatostatin receptor 5 16,21
Rat 7 363 10q12 Sstr5 somatostatin receptor 5 26
Previous and Unofficial Names
SOMATO
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB ssr5_human (Hs), ssr5_mouse (Mm), ssr5_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
cortistatin-14 {Sp: Mouse, Rat}
CST-17 {Sp: Human}
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
SRIF-28 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat}
Comments: SRIF-14 and SRIF-28 are the active fragments of precursor somatostatin

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
[125I]LTT-SRIF-28 Mm Full agonist 11.0 pKd 14
pKd 11.0 [14]
[125I]Tyr10-CST14 Hs Full agonist 10.3 pKd 40,42
pKd 10.3 [40,42]
[125I]Tyr10-CST14 Mm Full agonist 10.2 pKd 14
pKd 10.2 [14]
[125I]Tyr11-SRIF-14 Hs Full agonist 10.0 pKd 27
pKd 10.0 [27]
[125I]Tyr11-SRIF-14 Rn Full agonist 10.0 pKd 27
pKd 10.0 [27]
[125I]LTT-SRIF-28 Hs Full agonist 9.2 – 10.5 pKd 35,40,42
pKd 10.5 [40,42]
pKd 9.2 [35]
SRIF-28 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 9.2 – 10.3 pKi 5,11,24,29,40-42
pKi 9.2 – 10.3 [5,11,24,29,40-42]
L-817,818 Hs Full agonist 9.4 pKi 35
pKi 9.4 [35]
CST-17 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.5 – 10.2 pKi 11,40,42
pKi 8.5 – 10.2 [11,40,42]
SRIF-14 {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.4 – 9.9 pKi 5,11,24,29,31,35,40-42,51
pKi 8.4 – 9.9 [5,11,24,29,31,35,40-42,51]
cortistatin-14 {Sp: Mouse, Rat} Hs Full agonist 8.4 – 9.7 pKi 40-42
pKi 8.4 – 9.7 [40-42]
BIM 23268 Hs Full agonist 8.7 pKi 24
pKi 8.7 [24]
lanreotide Hs Full agonist 7.4 – 9.3 pKi 5,24,29,40-42
pKi 7.4 – 9.3 [5,24,29,40-42]
octreotide Hs Full agonist 7.2 – 9.5 pKi 5,24,29,40-42,51
pKi 7.2 – 9.5 [5,24,29,40-42,51]
L-362,855 Hs Full agonist 7.2 – 9.2 pKi 24,40-42
pKi 7.2 – 9.2 [24,40-42]
BIM 23056 Hs Full agonist 6.7 – 8.3 pKi 24,29,40-42
pKi 6.7 – 8.3 [24,29,40-42]
pasireotide Hs Full agonist 9.8 pIC50 36
pIC50 9.8 [36]
[111In]DOTA-BOC-ATE Hs Full agonist 8.4 pIC50 15
pIC50 8.4 [15]
[111In]DOTA-NOC-ATE Hs Full agonist 8.4 pIC50 15
pIC50 8.4 [15]
[111In,90Y]DOTA-NOC Hs Full agonist 8.0 pIC50 48
pIC50 8.0 [48]
[111In,90Y]DOTA-TOC Hs Full agonist 6.7 pIC50 48
pIC50 6.7 [48]
veldoreotide Hs Agonist - - 2
[2]
View species-specific agonist tables
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
S5A1 Hs Antagonist 9.3 pKi 13
pKi 9.3 (Ki 5.4x10-10 M) [13]
BIM 23056 Hs Antagonist 7.4 – 8.3 pKi
pKi 7.4 – 8.3
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Adenylate cyclase inhibition
Potassium channel
Calcium channel
Comments:  GRK2-mediated agonist-selective phosphorylation and PP1γ-mediated dephosphorylation of threonine 333 (T333) regulates rapid internalization and recycling.
References:  30,38
Tissue Distribution
Other structures: kidney
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  22,47
Pancreatic islets: Mainly in beta-cells, co-localised with insulin. Moderately expressed in alpha-cells, co-localised with glucagon. Also predominant in delta-cells, co-localised with somatostatin.
Species:  Human
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  20
Anterior pituitary: GH- and ACTH producing cells, neuroendocrine cells of the intestine, pancreatic islets
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  18
CNS: basal forebrain
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  43
Endocrine system: anterior pituitary, endocrine pancreas, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, thyroid gland, ovary, testis, neuroendocrine / enterochromaffin-like cells of the GI mucosa
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  22,47
Gastrointestinal tract: parotid gland
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  22,47
Immune system: lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymph follicles, macrophages
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  22,47
Pituitary: Somatotrophs (secrete GH), thyrotrophs (secrete TSH), lactotrophs (secrete PRL) as well as gonadotrophs and corticotrophs.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  double label in situ hybridisation.
References:  9
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of GH, TSH and PRL secretion from human fetal pituitary cells.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Primary human fetal pituitary cells.
Response measured:  Reduction in GH and TSH secretion, no change to PRL secretion.
References:  37
Measurement of gastric acid secretion in vivo using rats.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
Response measured:  Inhibition of gastric acid secretion.
References:  23
Measurement of PLC activity in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with human sst5 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of PLC activity.
References:  49
Measurement of PLC activity in CCL39 cells stably transfected with human sst5 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CCL39 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of PLC activity.
References:  39
Measurement of Ca2+ currents in AtT-20 cells expressing sst5 receptors.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  AtT-20 cell line (mouse anterior pituitary).
Response measured:  Coupling to L-type Ca2+ current.
References:  45
Measurement of AC activity (cAMP levels) in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with human sst5 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of AC activity at low agonist concentrations, and activation of AC activity at higher concentrations, via different transduction pathways.
References:  6
Measurement of AC activity (cAMP levels) in CCL39 cells stably transfected with human sst5 receptors.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CCL39 cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of AC activity.
References:  38
Measurement of GIRK currents (inward potassium currents) in Xenopus oocyte cells stably transfected with rat sst5 receptors and GIRK1 channels.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes.
Response measured:  Activation of GIRK currents.
References:  19
Measurement of GH release from GC cells (growth cells) from a rat somatotroph tumour, treated with a sst1/sst2 subtype selective agonist.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  GC cells (growth cells) from a rat somatotroph tumour endogenously expressing all 5 sst receptor subtypes.
Response measured:  Reduction in GH secretion.
References:  7
Physiological Functions
Inhibition of GH release (synergistic with sst2).
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Primary fetal pituitary cell culture.
References:  33
Inhibition of insulin release.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Pancreas.
References:  44
Antiproliferation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Umbilical vein endothelial cells.
References:  1
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Mice lacking the sst5 receptor show subtype-selective sexually dimorphic changes in the brain and pancreatic islets. They show an up-regulation of sst2 and sst3 receptors, and a down-regulation of sst4 receptors in the female sst5 knock-out brain, but not the male. They show a reduction in SRIF mRNA and SRIF-like immunoreactivity in the male sst5 knock-out brain, but not the female. They show an up-regulation of sst1, sst2 and sst3 receptors in male sst5 knock-out pancreatic islets, but only an increase in sst3 in female sst5 knock-out islets. They show a reduction in SRIF-like immunoreactivity in male sst5 knock-out mice, but no change in female.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  32
Mice lacking the sst5 receptor appeared to be healthy, with no obvious phenotypic abnormalities. However, they show an increase in insulin levels and a reduction in the SRIF-induced inhibition of insulin secretion from the pancreatic islets. They show a decrease in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels, and increased leptin and glucagon concentrations compared with the wild-type mice.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  44
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Sstr5tm1Hawi|Sstr5tm1Xpw|Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Xpw,Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:3603308  MGI:894282  MP:0003839 abnormal insulin clearance PMID: 15919085 
Sstr5tm1Hawi Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Hawi
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0001262 decreased body weight PMID: 12511609 
Sstr5tm1Hawi Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Hawi
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0005560 decreased circulating glucose level PMID: 12511609 
Sstr5tm1Hawi|Sstr5tm1Xpw|Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Xpw,Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:3603308  MGI:894282  MP:0005560 decreased circulating glucose level PMID: 15919085 
Sstr5tm1Hawi Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Hawi
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 12511609 
Sstr5tm1Hawi|Sstr5tm1Xpw|Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Xpw,Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:3603308  MGI:894282  MP:0003059 decreased insulin secretion PMID: 15919085 
Sstr5tm1Kum Sstr5tm1Kum/Sstr5tm1Kum
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0003339 decreased pancreatic beta cell number PMID: 15223137 
Sstr5tm1Hawi|Sstr5tm1Xpw|Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Xpw,Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:3603308  MGI:894282  MP:0009181 decreased pancreatic delta cell number PMID: 15919085 
Sstr5tm1Hawi|Sstr5tm1Xpw|Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Xpw,Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:3603308  MGI:894282  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 15919085 
Sstr5tm1Hawi Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Hawi
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0005292 improved glucose tolerance PMID: 12511609 
Sstr5tm1Hawi Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Hawi
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0002712 increased circulating glucagon level PMID: 12511609 
Sstr5tm1Hawi|Sstr5tm1Xpw|Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Xpw,Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:3603308  MGI:894282  MP:0002079 increased circulating insulin level PMID: 15919085 
Sstr5tm1Hawi Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Hawi
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0005669 increased circulating leptin level PMID: 12511609 
Sstr5tm1Hawi Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Hawi
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0003058 increased insulin secretion PMID: 12511609 
Sstr5tm1Hawi|Sstr5tm1Xpw|Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Xpw,Tg(Ins2-cre)1Heed/0
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:3603308  MGI:894282  MP:0003058 increased insulin secretion PMID: 15919085 
Sstr5tm1Hawi Sstr5tm1Hawi/Sstr5tm1Hawi
involves: 129S7/SvEvBrd * C57BL/6J
MGI:894282  MP:0002891 increased insulin sensitivity PMID: 12511609 
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Acromegaly
Disease Ontology: DOID:2449
OMIM: 102200
Orphanet: ORPHA963
Comments: 
References:  3
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Amino acid change Nucleotide change Description Reference
Missense Human R240W 3
Disease:  Pituitary adenoma, growth hormone-secreting, 1; PAGH1
Synonyms: Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma [Disease Ontology: DOID:6255]
Disease Ontology: DOID:6255
OMIM: 102200
Drugs: 
References:  8
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  Two differently truncated sst5 variants (sstTMD5/sstTMD4) show a different expression pattern in normal tissue and pituitary tumors. Both splice variants are functionally active and show a predominant intracellular localization. Sst5TMD is selectively activated by somatostatin compared with cortistatin, while sst5TMD4 is exclusively activated by cortistatin and not somatostatin. The details of the transcripts provided by the authors are sst5TM5(DQ448303) and sst5TMD4 (DQ448304).
References:  10

References

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1. Adams RL, Adams IP, Lindow SW, Atkin SL. (2004) Inhibition of endothelial proliferation by the somatostatin analogue SOM230. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf), 61 (4): 431-6. [PMID:15473874]

2. Afargan M, Janson ET, Gelerman G, Rosenfeld R, Ziv O, Karpov O, Wolf A, Bracha M, Shohat D, Liapakis G et al.. (2001) Novel long-acting somatostatin analog with endocrine selectivity: potent suppression of growth hormone but not of insulin. Endocrinology, 142 (1): 477-86. [PMID:11145612]

3. Ballarè E, Persani L, Lania AG, Filopanti M, Giammona E, Corbetta S, Mantovani S, Arosio M, Beck-Peccoz P, Faglia G et al.. (2001) Mutation of somatostatin receptor type 5 in an acromegalic patient resistant to somatostatin analog treatment. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 86 (8): 3809-14. [PMID:11502816]

4. Baumbach WR, Carrick TA, Pausch MH, Bingham B, Carmignac D, Robinson IC, Houghten R, Eppler CM, Price LA, Zysk JR. (1998) A linear hexapeptide somatostatin antagonist blocks somatostatin activity in vitro and influences growth hormone release in rats. Mol. Pharmacol., 54 (5): 864-73. [PMID:9804621]

5. Bruns C, Raulf F, Hoyer D, Schloos J, Lübbert H, Weckbecker G. (1996) Binding properties of somatostatin receptor subtypes. Metab. Clin. Exp., 45 (8 Suppl 1): 17-20. [PMID:8769372]

6. Carruthers AM, Warner AJ, Michel AD, Feniuk W, Humphrey PP. (1999) Activation of adenylate cyclase by human recombinant sst5 receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells and involvement of Galphas proteins. Br. J. Pharmacol., 126 (5): 1221-9. [PMID:10205012]

7. Cervia D, Zizzari P, Pavan B, Schuepbach E, Langenegger D, Hoyer D, Biondi C, Epelbaum J, Bagnoli P. (2003) Biological activity of somatostatin receptors in GC rat tumour somatotrophs: evidence with sst1-sst5 receptor-selective nonpeptidyl agonists. Neuropharmacology, 44 (5): 672-85. [PMID:12668053]

8. Colao A, Petersenn S, Newell-Price J, Findling JW, Gu F, Maldonado M, Schoenherr U, Mills D, Salgado LR, Biller BM et al.. (2012) A 12-month phase 3 study of pasireotide in Cushing's disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 366 (10): 914-24. [PMID:22397653]

9. Day R, Dong W, Panetta R, Kraicer J, Greenwood MT, Patel YC. (1995) Expression of mRNA for somatostatin receptor (sstr) types 2 and 5 in individual rat pituitary cells. A double labeling in situ hybridization analysis. Endocrinology, 136 (11): 5232-5. [PMID:7588263]

10. Durán-Prado M, Gahete MD, Martínez-Fuentes AJ, Luque RM, Quintero A, Webb SM, Benito-López P, Leal A, Schulz S, Gracia-Navarro F et al.. (2009) Identification and characterization of two novel truncated but functional isoforms of the somatostatin receptor subtype 5 differentially present in pituitary tumors. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 94 (7): 2634-43. [PMID:19401364]

11. Engström M, Tomperi J, El-Darwish K, Ahman M, Savola JM, Wurster S. (2005) Superagonism at the human somatostatin receptor subtype 4. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 312 (1): 332-8. [PMID:15333679]

12. Erchegyi J, Hoeger CA, Low W, Hoyer D, Waser B, Eltschinger V, Schaer JC, Cescato R, Reubi JC, Rivier JE. (2005) Somatostatin receptor 1 selective analogues: 2. N(alpha)-Methylated scan. J Med Chem, 48: 507-514. [PMID:15658864]

13. Farb TB, Adeva M, Beauchamp TJ, Cabrera O, Coates DA, Meredith TD, Droz BA, Efanov A, Ficorilli JV, Gackenheimer SL et al.. (2017) Regulation of Endogenous (Male) Rodent GLP-1 Secretion and Human Islet Insulin Secretion by Antagonism of Somatostatin Receptor 5. Endocrinology, 158 (11): 3859-3873. [PMID:28938487]

14. Feuerbach D, Fehlmann D, Nunn C, Siehler S, Langenegger D, Bouhelal R, Seuwen K, Hoyer D. (2000) Cloning, expression and pharmacological characterisation of the mouse somatostatin sst(5) receptor. Neuropharmacology, 39 (8): 1451-62. [PMID:10818261]

15. Ginj M, Chen J, Walter MA, Eltschinger V, Reubi JC, Maecke HR. (2005) Preclinical evaluation of new and highly potent analogues of octreotide for predictive imaging and targeted radiotherapy. Clin. Cancer Res., 11 (3): 1136-45. [PMID:15709181]

16. Gordon DF, Woodmansee WW, Lewis SR, James RA, Wood WM, Ridgway EC. (1999) Cloning of the mouse somatostatin receptor subtype 5 gene: promoter structure and function. Endocrinology, 140 (12): 5598-608. [PMID:10579323]

17. Hocart SJ, Jain R, Murphy WA, Taylor JE, Coy DH. (1999) Highly potent cyclic disulfide antagonists of somatostatin. J. Med. Chem., 42 (11): 1863-71. [PMID:10354394]

18. Kaemmerer D, Lupp A, Peter L, Fischer E, Schulz S, Klöppel G, Hommann M. (2013) Correlation of monoclonal and polyclonal somatostatin receptor 5 antibodies in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 6 (1): 49-54. [PMID:23236542]

19. Kreienkamp HJ, Hönck HH, Richter D. (1997) Coupling of rat somatostatin receptor subtypes to a G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1). FEBS Lett., 419 (1): 92-4. [PMID:9426226]

20. Kumar U, Sasi R, Suresh S, Patel A, Thangaraju M, Metrakos P, Patel SC, Patel YC. (1999) Subtype-selective expression of the five somatostatin receptors (hSSTR1-5) in human pancreatic islet cells: a quantitative double-label immunohistochemical analysis. Diabetes, 48 (1): 77-85. [PMID:9892225]

21. Lublin AL, Diehl NL, Hochgeschwender U. (1997) Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the type 5 mouse (Mus musculus) somatostatin receptor (msst5). Gene, 195 (1): 63-6. [PMID:9300821]

22. Lupp A, Hunder A, Petrich A, Nagel F, Doll C, Schulz S. (2011) Reassessment of sst(5) somatostatin receptor expression in normal and neoplastic human tissues using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody UMB-4. Neuroendocrinology, 94 (3): 255-64. [PMID:21952553]

23. Martínez V, Coy DH, Lloyd KC, Taché Y. (1996) Intracerebroventricular injection of somatostatin sst5 receptor agonist inhibits gastric acid secretion in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 296 (2): 153-60. [PMID:8838451]

24. Meyerhof W. (1998) The elucidation of somatostatin receptor functions: a current view. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol., 133: 55-108. [PMID:9600011]

25. Nunn C, Schoeffter P, Langenegger D, Hoyer D. (2003) Functional characterisation of the putative somatostatin sst2 receptor antagonist CYN 154806. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol., 367 (1): 1-9. [PMID:12616335]

26. O'Carroll AM, Lolait SJ, König M, Mahan LC. (1992) Molecular cloning and expression of a pituitary somatostatin receptor with preferential affinity for somatostatin-28. Mol. Pharmacol., 42 (6): 939-46. [PMID:1362243]

27. O'Carroll AM, Raynor K, Lolait SJ, Reisine T. (1994) Characterization of cloned human somatostatin receptor SSTR5. Mol. Pharmacol., 46 (2): 291-8. [PMID:8078491]

28. Panetta R, Greenwood MT, Warszynska A, Demchyshyn LL, Day R, Niznik HB, Srikant CB, Patel YC. (1994) Molecular cloning, functional characterization, and chromosomal localization of a human somatostatin receptor (somatostatin receptor type 5) with preferential affinity for somatostatin-28. Mol. Pharmacol., 45 (3): 417-27. [PMID:7908405]

29. Patel YC, Srikant CB. (1994) Subtype selectivity of peptide analogs for all five cloned human somatostatin receptors (hsstr 1-5). Endocrinology, 135 (6): 2814-7. [PMID:7988476]

30. Petrich A, Mann A, Kliewer A, Nagel F, Strigli A, Märtens JC, Pöll F, Schulz S. (2013) Phosphorylation of threonine 333 regulates trafficking of the human sst5 somatostatin receptor. Mol. Endocrinol., 27 (4): 671-82. [PMID:23418396]

31. Poitout L, Roubert P, Contour-Galcéra MO, Moinet C, Lannoy J, Pommier J, Plas P, Bigg D, Thurieau C. (2001) Identification of potent non-peptide somatostatin antagonists with sst(3) selectivity. J. Med. Chem., 44 (18): 2990-3000. [PMID:11520208]

32. Ramírez JL, Grant M, Norman M, Wang XP, Moldovan S, de Mayo FJ, Brunicardi C, Kumar U. (2004) Deficiency of somatostatin (SST) receptor type 5 (SSTR5) is associated with sexually dimorphic changes in the expression of SST and SST receptors in brain and pancreas. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 221 (1-2): 105-19. [PMID:15223137]

33. Ren SG, Taylor J, Dong J, Yu R, Culler MD, Melmed S. (2003) Functional association of somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 in inhibiting human growth hormone secretion. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 88 (9): 4239-45. [PMID:12970293]

34. Reubi JC, Eisenwiener KP, Rink H, Waser B, Mäcke HR. (2002) A new peptidic somatostatin agonist with high affinity to all five somatostatin receptors. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 456 (1-3): 45-9. [PMID:12450568]

35. Rohrer SP, Birzin ET, Mosley RT, Berk SC, Hutchins SM, Shen DM, Xiong Y, Hayes EC, Parmar RM, Foor F et al.. (1998) Rapid identification of subtype-selective agonists of the somatostatin receptor through combinatorial chemistry. Science, 282 (5389): 737-40. [PMID:9784130]

36. Schmid HA, Schoeffter P. (2004) Functional activity of the multiligand analog SOM230 at human recombinant somatostatin receptor subtypes supports its usefulness in neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology, 80 Suppl 1: 47-50. [PMID:15477717]

37. Shimon I, Taylor JE, Dong JZ, Bitonte RA, Kim S, Morgan B, Coy DH, Culler MD, Melmed S. (1997) Somatostatin receptor subtype specificity in human fetal pituitary cultures. Differential role of SSTR2 and SSTR5 for growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin regulation. J. Clin. Invest., 99 (4): 789-98. [PMID:9045884]

38. Siehler S, Hoyer D. (1999) Characterisation of human recombinant somatostatin receptors. 3. Modulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 360: 510-521. [PMID:10598790]

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