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Cav1.2

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Immunopharmacology Ligand target has curated data in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 529

Nomenclature: Cav1.2

Family: Voltage-gated calcium channels

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
Species TM P Loops AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 24 4 2221 12p13.33 CACNA1C calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C
Mouse 24 4 2139 6 55.86 cM Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit
Rat 24 4 2169 4q42 Cacna1c calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
α1C | cardiac or smooth muscle dihydropyridine receptor | cardiac or smooth muscle L-type Ca2+ channel | CACH2 | CACN2 | CACNL1A1 | LQT8 | calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 polypeptide, isoform 1, cardiac muscle | L-type calcium channel alpha-1 subunit | calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit | calcium channel
Database Links Click here for help
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet
Pharos
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Associated Proteins Click here for help
Heteromeric Pore-forming Subunits
Name References
Not determined
Auxiliary Subunits
Name References
β1-4 20
α (isoforms 1-4) 42,71
Other Associated Proteins
Name References
A-kinase anchoring proteins 17
BIN-1 36
PP2A/PP2B/Calcineurin 31,58,99
Calmodulin-dependent kinase II 45,68
Caveolin 3 5
KCHIP-2 85
Phospholemman/FXYD1 89
Sorcin 21
Calcium binding proteins (Caldendrin, CaBP1) 86
NIL-16 94
STIM-1 62,90
Phosphodiesterase 4B 46
Calmodulin 66,68,103,106
Calfacilitin 61
alpha-actinin 30
RGK-GTPases 49,60,102
Functional Characteristics Click here for help
L-type calcium current: High voltage-activated, voltage- and calcium-dependent inactivation
Ion Selectivity and Conductance Click here for help
Species:  Guinea pig
Rank order:  Na+ [85.0 pS] > Li+ [45.0 pS] > Ba2+ [25.0 pS] > Ca2+ [8.0 pS] = Sr2+ [8.0 pS]
References:  33
Voltage Dependence Click here for help
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  -17.6 0.5 – 1.5 32 HEK-293, tsA-201 Mouse
Inactivation  - -
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  0.9 - 87 Xenopus laevis oocyte Human
Inactivation  -14.9 - 87
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  -6.0 – -0.1 (median: -4.8) 5.2 – 7.1 12,47,52,54,64 Ventricular myocytes. Human
Inactivation  -28.5 – -18.4 (median: -20.4) 9.11 – 21.1 8,12,47,52,54,64
Comments  Data are given for physiological Ca2+ concentrations. Inactivation time constants are given for depolarising pulses close to Vmax. In addition to τf displayed above τs is 60.9-133ms. The activation time data is measured time to peak during pulses close to Vmax.
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  4.5 - 14 Xenopus laevis oocyte Rat
Inactivation  1.7 30.0 14
Comments  Data are for 10mM extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Inactivation time constant ii estimated given for depolarising pulses close to Vmax. In addition to τf displayed above τs is 175ms.
Voltage Dependence Comments
V0.5 for inactivation varies depending on prepulse duration (more negative after long prepulses); inactivation time course strongly depends on associated β subunit (slower inactivation with β2a) and on charge carrier (calcium-induced inactivation with Ca2+ as charge carrier). Activation and inactivation voltage are affected by alternative splicing. Splice variants preferentially expressed in vascular smooth muscle activate/inactivate at more hyperpolarized voltages. They underlie hyperpolarized window currents in smooth muscle and enhanced state-dependent inhibition by dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers [48].

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Activators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
BAYK 8644 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn - - - 5x10-6 - 14
Conc range: 5x10-6 M [14]
FPL64176 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs - - - 1x10-7 - 1x10-6 - 41,50
Conc range: 1x10-7 - 1x10-6 M [41,50]
Description: guinea pig, human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes
(-)-(S)-BayK8644 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs - ~7.8 pEC50 - -
pEC50 ~7.8 (EC50 ~1.73x10-8 M)
SZ(+)-(S)-202-791 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs - - - - -
View species-specific activator tables
Gating inhibitors Click here for help
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
[3H](+)-isradipine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 10.1 – 11.0 pKd - - 77
pKd 10.1 – 11.0 [77]
[3H](+)-isradipine Small molecule or natural product Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Mm Antagonist 10.1 pKd - - 79
pKd 10.1 [79]
[3H](-)devapamil Small molecule or natural product Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Rn Antagonist 8.2 – 8.4 pKd - - 57,105
pKd 8.2 – 8.4 [57,105]
[3H](+)-cis-diltiazem Small molecule or natural product Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Rn Antagonist 7.2 pKd - - 57
pKd 7.2 [57]
nitrendipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Clf Antagonist 9.4 pIC50 - -80.0 – 30.0 7
pIC50 9.4 [7]
Holding voltage: -80.0 – 30.0 mV
amlodipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Oc - 9.3 pIC50 - - 37
pIC50 9.3 [37]
Description: Determined in vascular smooth muscle.
isradipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.5 – 8.8 pIC50 - - 59
pIC50 8.8 arterial smooth muscle-like activity [59]
pIC50 8.5 dopamine neuron neuron-like activity [59]
nifedipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Antagonist 8.1 – 8.7 pIC50 - -40.0 67,70
pIC50 8.1 – 8.7 (IC50 8.9x10-9 – 2x10-9 M) 100-fold difference for nifedipine on rat smooth (pIC50 8.5) versus cardiac (pIC50 6.5) cells in vitro (Perez-Vizcaino et al. 1993). [67,70]
Holding voltage: -40.0 mV
Description: guinea pig, human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes
nisoldipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Mm Antagonist 7.0 – 8.0 pIC50 - -80.0 78
pIC50 7.0 – 8.0 [78]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
isradipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Mm Antagonist 7.5 pIC50 - -80.0 79
pIC50 7.5 [79]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
(-)-devapamil Small molecule or natural product Rn Antagonist 7.3 pIC50 - 10.0 35,39
pIC50 7.3 [35,39]
Holding voltage: 10.0 mV
nisoldipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Hs Antagonist 7.1 pIC50 - -80.0 82
pIC50 7.1 [82]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
nimodipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.8 pIC50 - -80.0 100
pIC50 6.8 [100]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
verapamil Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 5.3 – 6.5 pIC50 - -60.0 – 10.0 39
pIC50 5.3 – 6.5 [39]
Holding voltage: -60.0 – 10.0 mV
View species-specific gating inhibitor tables
Gating Inhibitor Comments
Inhibition by dihydropyridines (e.g. nifedipine or isradipine; [48,59,67]) is voltage-dependent with a higher apparent affinity at more depolarised potentials; phenylalkylamines (like devapamil; [39]) exhibit strong use-dependence with a higher apparent affinity at higher stimulation frequencies.
Channel Blockers
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
calciseptine Peptide Hs Antagonist 7.1 – 7.8 pIC50 - - 18,91
pIC50 7.1 – 7.8 [18,91]
Pb2+ Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.4 pIC50 - -70.0 65
pIC50 6.4 [65]
Holding voltage: -70.0 mV
diltiazem Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Ligand has a PDB structure Mf Antagonist 6.3 pIC50 - - 40
pIC50 6.3 [40]
verapamil Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 5.3 – 6.5 pIC50 - - 39
pIC50 5.3 – 6.5 [39]
Cd2+ Click here for species-specific activity table Oc - 5.7 – 6.0 pIC50 - -80.0 34
pIC50 5.7 – 6.0 [34]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
benidipine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Hs Antagonist 5.3 pIC50 - - 98
pIC50 5.3 (IC50 4.9x10-6 M) [98]
Description: Inhibition of human L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 in Xenopus oocyte, measured using 2-electrode voltage-clamp.
mibefradil Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 4.9 pIC50 - -110.0 53
pIC50 4.9 [53]
Holding voltage: -110.0 mV
(-)-(R)-efonidipine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Antagonist 2.0 – 3.5 pIC50 - -100.0 – -60.0 25
pIC50 2.0 – 3.5 [25]
Holding voltage: -100.0 – -60.0 mV
View species-specific channel blocker tables
Channel Blocker Comments
Amlodopine, isradipine, nifedipine, nitrendipine, and nimodipine are examples of dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists. Verapamil is a phenylalkylamine calcium channel blocker. Diltiazem is a benzothiazepine calcium channel blocker.
Immunopharmacology Comments
Cav1.2 is implicated in Th2 cell function in asthma [74,88].
Cell Type Associations
Immuno Cell Type:  T cells
Cell Ontology Term:   T-helper 2 cell (CL:0000546)
References:  73-74,88
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Immune system development
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:0002520 immune system development IMP
Tissue Distribution Click here for help
Brain (cortex, pallidum, putamen, hippocampus, caudate nucleas, substantia nigra, cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia).
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  84
Heart, brain, prostate, bladder,uterus ,stomach, colon, small intestive, placenta, adrenal gland, spinal cord.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern Blot
References:  29,76,82
Lymphocytes
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR, Western blotting.
References:  83
Lymphocytes
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  4
Expressed in the first and second pharyngeal arches within the subset of cells that give rise to jaw primordia.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  β-galactosidase expression in transgenic mice
References:  72
Brain (adult; hippocampus, cerebellum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, caudate putamen, cortex), heart. Teeth (P0), eye (E16.5, retina and sclera), digits (E12.5).
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  In situ hybridisation
References:  82
Brain (cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus (dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn) > amygdala, thalamus).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation
References:  51
Tissue Distribution Comments
The physiological role of individual L-type channel isoforms for lymphocyte function not established. Additionally, truncated Cav1.2 protein has been detected in lymphocytes on protein level, however its function remains unknown [83].
Functional Assays Click here for help
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Cardiac myocytes.
Response measured:  L-type currents
References:  8,12,29,47,52,54,64,79
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, PC12 cells expressing Cav1.2.
Response measured:  L-type currents.
References:  14,35,39,50
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes, CHO cells expressing Cav1.2
Response measured:  L-type current
References:  76,80,82,87
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Sympathetic neurons.
Response measured:  L-type current
References:  50
Calcium imaging.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Cardiac myocytes.
Response measured:  Intracellular calcium transients, calcium release.
References:  13,28
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  HEK-293 cells expressing Cav1.2, cardiac myocytes
Response measured:  L-type currents.
References:  32,59,78
Physiological Functions Click here for help
Excitation contraction coupling and muscle contraction in heart and vascular smooth muscle.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Heart and vascular smooth muscle.
References:  56,79,104
Insulin secretion, β-cell L-type calcium currents.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Pancreatic β-cells.
References:  6,75,79
Early cardiac development.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Embryonal heart.
References:  78
Urinary bladder function.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Urinary bladder.
References:  93
Acquisition of conditioned fear, fear learning
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
References:  38,43
Mandibular development (evidence in humans and mice)
Species:  Human
Tissue:  First and second pharyngeal arches (jaw primordia)
References:  72
Control of emotional behaviours
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
References:  3,44
Hippocampal long-term potentiation and spatial memory.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain.
References:  55,96
Intestinal smooth muscle contraction, intestinal mobility
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Intestinal smooth muscle
References:  92
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression Click here for help
Disruption of protein kinase A phosphorylation leads to reduced channel activation by isoproterenol and to impaired cardiac function in vivo (reduced exercise capacity, cardiac hypertrophy)
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Cardiac myocytes
Technique:  Homologous recombination; mutant mice with impaired protein kinase A phosphorylation (S1700A/T1704A)
References:  22
Cardiac hypertrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Cardiac myocytes
Technique:  Homologous recombination: reduced expression of Cav1.2 in mouse hearts in various mouse models
References:  9,19,23,27
Hypertrophy and heart failure develop with increasing age. Premature deaths begin at 200 days of age.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Haert
Technique: 
References:  101
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Click here for help Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0002206 abnormal CNS synaptic transmission PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm1Hfm Cacna1ctm1Hfm/Cacna1ctm1Hfm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0002085 abnormal embryonic tissue morphology PMID: 10973973 
Cacna1ctm2Hfm Cacna1ctm2Hfm/Cacna1ctm2Hfm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0002085 abnormal embryonic tissue morphology PMID: 10973973 
Cacna1ctm1.1Knt Cacna1ctm1.1Knt/Cacna1ctm1.1Knt
involves: 129 * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0001449 abnormal learning/ memory PMID: 20190743 
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0002066 abnormal motor capabilities/coordination/movement PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0004215 abnormal myocardial fiber physiology PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0003633 abnormal nervous system physiology PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0003562 abnormal pancreatic beta cell physiology PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0002573 behavioral despair PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0003059 decreased insulin secretion PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1c+|Cacna1ctm1Dgen Cacna1ctm1Dgen/Cacna1c+
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0001402 hypoactivity
Cacna1c+|Cacna1ctm1Dgen Cacna1ctm1Dgen/Cacna1c+
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0001405 impaired coordination
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1ctm1.1Knt Cacna1ctm1.1Knt/Cacna1ctm1.1Knt
involves: 129 * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0008531 increased chemical nociceptive threshold PMID: 20190743 
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1c+|Cacna1ctm1Dgen Cacna1ctm1Dgen/Cacna1c+
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0002797 increased thigmotaxis
Cacna1ctm1Hfm Cacna1ctm1Hfm/Cacna1ctm1Hfm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0006208 lethality throughout fetal growth and development PMID: 10973973 
Cacna1ctm2Hfm Cacna1ctm2Hfm/Cacna1ctm2Hfm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0006208 lethality throughout fetal growth and development PMID: 10973973 
Cacna1ctm1Dgen Cacna1ctm1Dgen/Cacna1ctm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0002082 postnatal lethality
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology Click here for help
Disease:  Angina pectoris
Drugs: 
Side effects:  Hypotension, edema, constipation, bradycardia, AV-block.
Therapeutic use:  Prophylaxis and treatment.
References:  69
Disease:  Arterial hypertension
Drugs: 
Side effects:  Hypotension, edema, constipation, bradycardia, AV-block.
Therapeutic use:  Treatment of hypertension (first-line option).
References:  1,15
Disease:  Brugada syndrome 3; BRGDA3
Synonyms: Brugada syndrome [Orphanet: ORPHA130] [Disease Ontology: DOID:0050451]
Disease Ontology: DOID:0050451
OMIM: 611875
Orphanet: ORPHA130
Role: 
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Amino acid change Nucleotide change Description Reference
In-frame duplication Human p.E1829_Q1833dup c.5485_5499 dup15 see NM_000719 11
Missense Human A39V see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human G490R see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human N547S see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human R858H see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human E1115K see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human C1837Y see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human C1855Y see NM_001167625 2,11,24
Missense Human R1880Q see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human R1970Q see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human V2014I see NM_000719 2,11,24
Missense Human D2130N see NM_000719 2,11,24
Splice defect Human c.1896G>A see NM_000719. This single nucleotide polymorphism did not induce an amino acid change but may cause a splicing error 24
Disease:  Cardiac arrhythmia
Drugs: 
References:  63,69
Disease:  Early repolarization syndrome
Role: 
References:  11
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Amino acid change Nucleotide change Description Reference
In-frame deletion Human E850del c.2548-550del GAG see NM_000719 11
Disease:  Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation
References:  24
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Amino acid change Nucleotide change Description Reference
Missense Human R858H see NM_000719 24
Disease:  Non syndromic autosomal dominant long QT-syndrome
Role: 
References:  10
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Amino acid change Nucleotide change Description Reference
Missense Human P857R 10
Disease:  Timothy syndrome
Disease Ontology: DOID:0060173
OMIM: 601005
Orphanet: ORPHA65283
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Amino acid change Nucleotide change Description Reference
Missense Human G402S 81
Missense Human G406R 82
Missense Human A1473G 26
Gene Expression and Pathophysiology Click here for help
Downregulation in animal models of inflamatory bowel disease.
Tissue or cell type:  Intestinal smooth muscle.
Pathophysiology:  Inflammatory bowel disease.
Species:  Dog
Technique:  Immunoblots and patch clamp electrophysiology.
References: 
SNPs in human CACNA1C gene
Tissue or cell type:  Neurons
Pathophysiology:  Risk for psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders
Species:  Human
Technique: 
References:  16
Gain of Cav1.2 function mutations in mice
Tissue or cell type:  Neurons
Pathophysiology:  Autistic phenotype
Species:  Mouse
Technique: 
References:  3
Upregulation in reactive astrocytes following brain injury.
Tissue or cell type:  Brain.
Pathophysiology:  Brain injury.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry in the shiverer mouse or kainate-lesioned rat
References:  95
Upregulation in reactive astrocytes around amyloid plaques in mouse Alzheimer models
Tissue or cell type:  Reactive astrocytes
Pathophysiology:  Alzheimer's disease
Species:  Mouse
Technique: 
References:  97
Biologically Significant Variants Click here for help
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  Predominant smooth muscle splice variant. The RNA sequence is Z34815 - modified, containing exon combination 1/8/9*/32/delta33. The protein sequence is CAA84346.1 - modified, containing exon combination 1/8/9*/32/delta33. The physiological effect is control of vascular tone (window calcium inward current); pharmacological effect is higher sensitivity to dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers than cardiac splice variants; explains pronounced blood pressure lowering effect of these drugs with only minor cardiodepressant action.
References:  48
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  Predominant heart muscle splice variant. The RNA sequence is Z34815 - modified, containing exon combination 1a/8a/delta9*/32/33. The protein sequence is CAA84346.1 - modified, containing exon combination 1/8/9*/32/delta33. The physiological effect is a major Cav1.2 isoform involved in cardiac contraction while the pharmacological effect is lower sensitivity to dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers than cardiac splice variants
References:  48
Biologically Significant Variant Comments
Smooth muscle and cardiac splice variants exist which differ in their voltage-dependant inactivation properties [48]. Alterations in the splicing pattern was observed in human smooth muscle within atherosclerotic regions [87].

References

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