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Synonyms: penicillin G sodium | penicillin-G potassium
penicillin G is an approved drug (FDA (1947))
Compound class: Synthetic organic
Comment: Penicillin G (benzylpenicillin ) is a narrow spectrum penicillin antibiotic.
Penicillin G is on the World Health Organisation's List of Essential Medicines. Click here to access the pdf version of the WHO's 21st Essential Medicines list (2019).
Ligand Activity Visualisation Charts
These are box plot that provide a unique visualisation, summarising all the activity data for a ligand taken from ChEMBL and GtoPdb across multiple targets and species. Click on a plot to see the median, interquartile range, low and high data points. A value of zero indicates that no data are available. A separate chart is created for each target, and where possible the algorithm tries to merge ChEMBL and GtoPdb targets by matching them on name and UniProt accession, for each available species. However, please note that inconsistency in naming of targets may lead to data for the same target being reported across multiple charts.✖
|Transporters Moving this Compound Across a Lipid Membrane|
|Targets where the ligand is described in the comment field|
|Peptide transporter 1||Although most di/tripeptides can bind PEPT1, not all of them are substrates. The uptake depends on the structural features (charge, hydrophobicity, size, side chain flexibility, etc.) of the di/tripeptide. A variety of dipeptides and drugs interact with PEPT1, including D-Phe-Ala [10,23], D-Phe-Gln , cyclo(L-Hyp-L-Ser) (i.e. JBP485) [5,27], nateglinide , glibenclamide  and penicillin G (benzylpenicillin) . Among many other molecules, PEPT1 has been shown to interact with L-Dopa-L-Phe [35,41], D-Phe-Gly-L-Dopa , JBP485 prodrugs (e.g. JBP485-3-CH2-O-valine, J3V) , 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) derivatives (i.e. Gly-ASA, Glu-ASA, Val-ASA) [30,54], cinnabar (i.e. α-HgS >96%) , doxorubicin-tripeptide (i.e. doxorubicin-Gly-Gly-Gly) , scutellarin methyl ester-4'-dipeptide conjugates (e.g. scutellarin methyl ester-4'-Val-homo-Leu) , curcumin (CUR)-peptide derivatives (i.e. CUR-Phe-Val, CUR-Ile-Val) , gemcitabine amino acid ester prodrugs (i.e. 5'-L-valyl-gemcitabine, V-Gem) [33,40], decitabine amino acid ester prodrugs (e.g. 5'-O-L-valyl-decitabine, L-Val-DAC) [36-37], didanosine amino acid ester prodrugs (e.g. 5'-O-L-valyl-didanosine, L-Val-DDI) , floxuridine amino acid ester prodrugs (e.g. 5'-L-isoleucyl and 5'-L-valyl amino acid ester prodrugs of floxuridine) [24-25], floxuridine amino acid monoester prodrugs (e.g. 5'-O-D-valyl-floxuridine) , floxuridine dipeptide monoester prodrugs (e.g. 5'-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine, 5'-L-phenylalanyl-L-glycyl-floxuridine, and 5'-L-isoleucyl-L-glycyl-floxuridine) , amino acid acyloxy ester prodrugs of guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOC) (e.g. GOC-L-Val, the L-valyl acyloxy ethyl prodrug of GOC)  and the valyl amino acid prodrug of GOC with the isopropyl-methylene-dioxy linker (i.e. GOC-ISP-Val) , amino acid acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir (Zan, e.g. Zan-L-Val, the L-valyl acycloxy ethyl prodrug of Zan) , peramivir-(CH2)2-L-Val and peramivir-L-Ile , thiodipeptide prodrugs of for example, ibuprofen and propofol , alanylpyrraline (Ala-Pyrr) and pyrralylalanine (Pyrr-Ala) , dipeptide-bound derivatives of N6-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N6-(1-carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL) (i.e. Ala-CML, CML-Ala, Ala-CEL, CEL-Ala) , Flammulina velutipes polysaccharide(FVP)-iron(III) complex [FVP-Fe(III) complex] , dipeptides of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) and tyrosine (i.e. L-Tyr-p-L-BPA (Tyr-BPA), p-L-BPA-L-tyrosine (BPA-Tyr))  and AuIII‐peptidodithiocarbamato complexes of the type [AuIIIBr2(dtc‐AA1‐AA2‐OR], in which AA1 = N‐methylglycine (Sar), L/D-Pro; AA2 = L/D-Ala, α‐aminoisobutyric acid (Aib); R = OtBu, triethylene glycol methyl ether) (e.g. dtc‐Pro‐Aib‐OtBu) . In recent years, PEPT1 has been shown to interact with a large variety of specifically targeted (i.e. peptide- or amino acid-functionalized) nanoparticles [7-9,14-15,48], (nano)micelles [22,45,52] and nanocomposites [16,46,50-51].|
|Peptide transporter 2||Although most di/tripeptides can bind PEPT2, not all of them are substrates. The uptake depends on the structural features (charge, hydrophobicity, size, side chain flexibility, etc.) of the di/tripeptide. Like PEPT1, PEPT2 interacts with dipeptides and drugs including D-Phe-Ala [10,39], nateglinide , glibenclamide , penicillin G (benzylpenicillin) , polymyxins (i.e. polymyxin B and colistin)  and entecavir . PEPT2 has been shown to interact with dipeptides of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) and tyrosine (i.e. L-Tyr-p-L-BPA (Tyr-BPA), p-L-BPA-L-tyrosine (BPA-Tyr))  and with AuIII‐peptidodithiocarbamato complexes of the type [AuIIIBr2(dtc‐AA1‐AA2‐OR), in which AA1 = N‐methylglycine (Sar), L/D‐Pro; AA2 = L/D‐Ala, α‐aminoisobutyric acid (Aib); R = OtBu, triethylene glycol methyl ether, e.g. dtc‐Pro‐Aib‐OtBu) .|