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tyrosine kinase 2

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Immunopharmacology Ligand target has curated data in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 2269

Nomenclature: tyrosine kinase 2

Abbreviated Name: Tyk2

Family: Janus kinase (JakA) family

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human - 1187 19p13.2 TYK2 tyrosine kinase 2
Mouse - 1184 9 A3 Tyk2 tyrosine kinase 2
Rat - 1186 8q13 Tyk2 tyrosine kinase 2
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
JTK1
Database Links Click here for help
Alphafold
BRENDA
CATH/Gene3D
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Enzyme
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet
Pharos
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
SynPHARM
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Selected 3D Structures Click here for help
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Non-phosphorylated TYK2 kinase with CMP6.
PDB Id:  3NZ0
Ligand:  JAK inhibitor I
Resolution:  2.0Å
Species:  Human
References:  38
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Structural and thermodynamic characterization of the TYK2 and JAK3 kinase domains in complex with CP-690550 and CMP-6.
PDB Id:  3LXP
Ligand:  tofacitinib
Resolution:  1.65Å
Species:  Human
References:  7
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Tyk2 with compound 23
PDB Id:  6DBM
Ligand:  brepocitinib
Resolution:  2.368Å
Species:  Human
References:  14
Enzyme Reaction Click here for help
EC Number: 2.7.10.2

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file go icon to follow link

Inhibitors
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
izencitinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 9.0 – 10.0 pKi 20
pKi 9.0 – 10.0 (Ki 1x10-9 – 1x10-10 M) [20]
nezulcitinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 8.6 pKi 26
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.5x10-9 M) [26]
delgocitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.8 pKi 36
pKi 7.8 (Ki 1.4x10-8 M) [36]
Description: In an assay using the kinase domain of the recombinant human enzyme, a biotinylated peptide substrate, and [33P]ATP.
cerdulatinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 9.3 pIC50 9
pIC50 9.3 (IC50 5x10-10 M) [9]
JAK inhibitor I Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibition 9.0 pIC50 13
pIC50 9.0 (IC50 1x10-9 M) [13]
SAR-20347 Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.9 – 9.2 pIC50 1
pIC50 9.2 (IC50 6x10-10 M)
Description: In a 33P-ATP assay.
pIC50 7.9 (IC50 1.3x10-8 M) [1]
Description: In a TR-FRET assay.
compound 29 [Moslin et al., 2017] Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 8.4 pIC50 28
pIC50 8.4 (IC50 4x10-9 M) [28]
Description: Measuring binding to the JH2 pseudokinase domain of human TYK2.
ruxolitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.5 – 9.3 pIC50 8,18
pIC50 9.3 (IC50 5.5x10-10 M) [18]
pIC50 7.5 (IC50 3x10-8 M) [8]
peficitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 8.3 pIC50 22
pIC50 8.3 (IC50 5x10-9 M) [22]
lorpucitinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Inhibition 8.1 pIC50 24
pIC50 8.1 (IC50 7.4x10-9 M) [24]
Description: Determined in a biochemical high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS) assay.
TYK2 inhibitor 14l Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 8.1 pIC50 44
pIC50 8.1 (IC50 9x10-9 M) [44]
zotiraciclib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Inhibition 7.8 pIC50 16
pIC50 7.8 (IC50 1.4x10-8 M) [16]
ropsacitinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Inhibition 7.8 pIC50 15
pIC50 7.8 (IC50 1.5x10-8 M) [15]
ilginatinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Inhibition 7.7 pIC50 30
pIC50 7.7 (IC50 2.2x10-8 M) [30]
brepocitinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.6 pIC50 14
pIC50 7.6 (IC50 2.3x10-8 M) [14]
PF-06263276 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.5 pIC50 23
pIC50 7.5 (IC50 2.97x10-8 M) [23]
JAK inhibitor 17b Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.4 pIC50 12
pIC50 7.4 (IC50 3.94x10-8 M) [12]
delgocitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.2 pIC50 31
pIC50 7.2 (IC50 5.8x10-8 M) [31]
baricitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.2 pIC50 8
pIC50 7.2 (IC50 6.1x10-8 M) [8]
BMS-911543 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibition 7.2 pIC50 33
pIC50 7.2 (IC50 6.6x10-8 M) [33]
JAK inhibitor 20a Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.1 pIC50 12
pIC50 7.1 (IC50 7.37x10-8 M) [12]
oclacitinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 7.1 pIC50 4
pIC50 7.1 (IC50 7.51x10-8 M) [4]
compound 13ac [PMID: 33256400] Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Inhibition 7.1 pIC50 43
pIC50 7.1 (IC50 7.5x10-8 M) [43]
LASW1393 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 6.9 pIC50 3
pIC50 6.9 (IC50 1.3x10-7 M) [3]
PF-956980 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibition 6.9 pIC50 17
pIC50 6.9 (IC50 1.28x10-7 M) [17]
fedratinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibition 6.8 pIC50 27
pIC50 6.8 (IC50 1.5x10-7 M) [27]
solcitinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 6.7 pIC50 5
pIC50 6.7 (IC50 2.19x10-7 M) [5]
tofacitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 6.3 pIC50 8
pIC50 6.3 (IC50 4.89x10-7 M) [8]
Description: In a biochemical enzyme assay.
filgotinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 5.6 – 6.9 pIC50 8,39
pIC50 6.9 (IC50 1.16x10-7 M) [39]
pIC50 5.6 (IC50 2.6x10-6 M) [8]
golidocitinib Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Inhibition 5.6 pIC50 35
pIC50 5.6 (IC50 2.8x10-6 M) [35]
Description: Inhbition of TYK2 enzymatic activity.
upadacitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 5.3 pIC50 40
pIC50 5.3 (IC50 4.7x10-6 M) [40]
JAK3 inhibitor 32 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition <5.0 pIC50 6
pIC50 <5.0 (IC50 >1x10-5 M) [6]
JAK3 inhibitor 34 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition <5.0 pIC50 6
pIC50 <5.0 (IC50 >1x10-5 M) [6]
Inhibitor Comments
The IC50 for decernotinib vs. TYK2 is >10 μM [8].
Allosteric Modulators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
deucravacitinib Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 10.7 pKi 42
pKi 10.7 (Ki 2x10-11 M) [42]
Description: Determined in a Morrison titration by varying the concentration of the fluorescent probe in the TYK2 JH2 assay.
deucravacitinib Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibition 9.7 pIC50 42
pIC50 9.7 (IC50 2x10-10 M) [42]
Description: Binding to TYK2's JH2 pseudokinase domain in a biochemical binding assay.
DiscoveRx KINOMEscan® screen Click here for help
A screen of 72 inhibitors against 456 human kinases. Quantitative data were derived using DiscoveRx KINOMEscan® platform.
http://www.discoverx.com/services/drug-discovery-development-services/kinase-profiling/kinomescan
Reference: 11,41

Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Target used in screen: TYK2(JH1domain-catalytic)
Ligand Sp. Type Action Value Parameter
ruxolitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 9.1 pKd
tofacitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 8.3 pKd
JNJ-28312141 Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 8.2 pKd
lestaurtinib Small molecule or natural product Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 7.8 pKd
fedratinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 7.7 pKd
staurosporine Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 7.3 pKd
NVP-TAE684 Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 7.1 pKd
dovitinib Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.8 pKd
KW-2449 Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.8 pKd
alvocidib Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.7 pKd
Target used in screen: TYK2(JH2domain-pseudokinase)
Ligand Sp. Type Action Value Parameter
alvocidib Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 7.5 pKd
dasatinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 7.0 pKd
sunitinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.4 pKd
fedratinib Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.3 pKd
JNJ-28312141 Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.3 pKd
MLN-120B Small molecule or natural product Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.3 pKd
KW-2449 Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.3 pKd
SU-14813 Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.1 pKd
TG-100-115 Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.1 pKd
lestaurtinib Small molecule or natural product Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.0 pKd
Displaying the top 10 most potent ligands  View all ligands in screen »
EMD Millipore KinaseProfilerTM screen/Reaction Biology Kinase HotspotSM screen Click here for help
A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and 539745) for their inhibitory activity at 1µM and 10µM against 234 human recombinant kinases using the EMD Millipore KinaseProfilerTM service.

A screen profiling the inhibitory activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors at 0.5µM against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using the Reaction Biology Corporation Kinase HotspotSM platform.

http://www.millipore.com/techpublications/tech1/pf3036
http://www.reactionbiology.com/webapps/main/pages/kinase.aspx


Reference: ...2

Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Target used in screen: nd/TYK2
Ligand Sp. Type Action % Activity remaining at 0.5µM % Activity remaining at 1µM % Activity remaining at 10µM
JNJ-7706621 Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 0.9
K-252a Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 0.9
JAK inhibitor I Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 1.5
staurosporine Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 1.9
Gö 6976 Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 2.6
SB 218078 Small molecule or natural product Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 4.3
Cdk2 inhibitor IV Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 5.0
Cdk1/2 inhibitor III Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 5.1
IKK-2 inhibitor IV Small molecule or natural product Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 6.3
midostaurin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 8.3
Displaying the top 10 most potent ligands  View all ligands in screen »
Immunopharmacology Comments
TYK2 was the first member of the Janus kinase family to be identified. It associates with the cytoplasmic domain of type I and type II cytokine receptors, where it phosphorylates receptor subunits and facilitates signalling downstream of the receptors for the p40-containing cytokines IL-12 and IL-23 via activation of STAT-dependent transcription factors. It also mediates Type I IFN-driven responses [34]. TYK2 activity mediates cytokine-driven immune and pro-inflammatory signalling pathways that are key components in the cycle of chronic inflammation that drives the pathophysiology of immune-mediated diseases including psoriasis [21] and arthritic psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory bowel diseases.

Small molecules that inhibit TYK2 are being actively developed as novel therapeutics for the above conditions [19,29]. TYK2 selectivity has been achieved by targeting the protein's pseudokinase (Jak homology 2 or JH2) domain [25,37], rather than the functional kinase (or JH1) domain which shares a high degree of homology across all members of the Janus kinase family and offers little selectivity. Identified molecules act as negative allosteric modulators (NAM) of TYK2 activity. One particular example of a clinical candidate TYK2 NAM is deucravacitinib (BMS-986165), which is an orally active compound that has progressed to Phase 3 clinical evaluation in patients with psoriasis [32], and is the first truly TYK2 selective inhibitor. Clinical trials are in earlier stages for a spectrum of chronic autoimmune diseases. Click here to link to ClinicalTrials.gov's full list of BMS-986165 studies. Nimbus Therapeutics are also developing allosteric TYK2 inhibitors (claimed in their patent WO2016138352 [10]), although no clinical leads have been disclosed (July 2021).
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:0060337 type I interferon signaling pathway TAS
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 5 GO processes
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
GO:0035722 interleukin-12-mediated signaling pathway TAS
GO:0038155 interleukin-23-mediated signaling pathway TAS
GO:0060337 type I interferon signaling pathway TAS
GO:0070106 interleukin-27-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology Click here for help
Disease:  Immunodeficiency 35; IMD35
Synonyms: Autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome due to TYK2 deficiency [Orphanet: ORPHA331226]
Tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency
OMIM: 611521
Orphanet: ORPHA331226
Disease:  Juvenile rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis
Orphanet: ORPHA85408
Disease:  Oligoarticular juvenile arthritis
Orphanet: ORPHA85410

References

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1. A-González N, Castrillo A. (2011) Liver X receptors as regulators of macrophage inflammatory and metabolic pathways. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1812 (8): 982-94. [PMID:21193033]

2. Anastassiadis T, Deacon SW, Devarajan K, Ma H, Peterson JR. (2011) Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity. Nat Biotechnol, 29 (11): 1039-45. [PMID:22037377]

3. Bach J, Eastwood P, González J, Gómez E, Alonso JA, Fonquerna S, Lozoya E, Orellana A, Maldonado M, Calaf E et al.. (2019) Identification of 2-Imidazopyridine and 2-Aminopyridone Purinones as Potent Pan-Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitors for the Inhaled Treatment of Respiratory Diseases. J Med Chem, 62 (20): 9045-9060. [PMID:31609613]

4. Berlinski PJ, Birchmeier MJ, Bowman JW, Gonzales AJ, Kamerling SG, Mann DW, Mitton-Fry MJ. (2010) Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine compounds. Patent number: WO2010020905. Assignee: Pfizer Inc.. Priority date: 20/08/2008. Publication date: 25/02/2010.

5. Blanc J. (2010) Novel compound useful for the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory diseases. Patent number: WO2010149771. Assignee: Galapagos Nv, Menet, Christel Jeanne Marie. Priority date: 26/06/2009. Publication date: 29/12/2010.

6. Casimiro-Garcia A, Trujillo JI, Vajdos F, Juba B, Banker ME, Aulabaugh A, Balbo P, Bauman J, Chrencik J, Coe JW et al.. (2018) Identification of Cyanamide-Based Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) Covalent Inhibitors. J Med Chem, 61 (23): 10665-10699. [PMID:30423248]

7. Chrencik JE, Patny A, Leung IK, Korniski B, Emmons TL, Hall T, Weinberg RA, Gormley JA, Williams JM, Day JE et al.. (2010) Structural and thermodynamic characterization of the TYK2 and JAK3 kinase domains in complex with CP-690550 and CMP-6. J Mol Biol, 400 (3): 413-33. [PMID:20478313]

8. Clark JD, Flanagan ME, Telliez JB. (2014) Discovery and development of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors for inflammatory diseases. J Med Chem, 57 (12): 5023-38. [PMID:24417533]

9. Coffey G, Betz A, DeGuzman F, Pak Y, Inagaki M, Baker DC, Hollenbach SJ, Pandey A, Sinha U. (2014) The novel kinase inhibitor PRT062070 (Cerdulatinib) demonstrates efficacy in models of autoimmunity and B-cell cancer. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 351 (3): 538-48. [PMID:25253883]

10. Dahlgren M, Greenwood JR, Harriman GC, Kennedy-Smith JJ, Masse CE, Romero DL, Shelley M, Wester RT. (2016) Tyk2 inhibitors and uses thereof. Patent number: WO2016138352A1. Assignee: Nimbus Lakshmi, Inc.. Priority date: 27/02/2015. Publication date: 01/09/2016.

11. Davis MI, Hunt JP, Herrgard S, Ciceri P, Wodicka LM, Pallares G, Hocker M, Treiber DK, Zarrinkar PP. (2011) Comprehensive analysis of kinase inhibitor selectivity. Nat Biotechnol, 29 (11): 1046-51. [PMID:22037378]

12. Elsayed MSA, Nielsen JJ, Park S, Park J, Liu Q, Kim CH, Pommier Y, Agama K, Low PS, Cushman M. (2018) Application of Sequential Palladium Catalysis for the Discovery of Janus Kinase Inhibitors in the Benzo[ c]pyrrolo[2,3- h][1,6]naphthyridin-5-one (BPN) Series. J Med Chem, 61 (23): 10440-10462. [PMID:30460842]

13. Fedorov O, Marsden B, Pogacic V, Rellos P, Müller S, Bullock AN, Schwaller J, Sundström M, Knapp S. (2007) A systematic interaction map of validated kinase inhibitors with Ser/Thr kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104 (51): 20523-8. [PMID:18077363]

14. Fensome A, Ambler CM, Arnold E, Banker ME, Brown MF, Chrencik J, Clark JD, Dowty ME, Efremov IV, Flick A et al.. (2018) Dual Inhibition of TYK2 and JAK1 for the Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases: Discovery of (( S)-2,2-Difluorocyclopropyl)((1 R,5 S)-3-(2-((1-methyl-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-yl)methanone (PF-06700841). J Med Chem, 61 (19): 8597-8612. [PMID:30113844]

15. Gerstenberger BS, Ambler C, Arnold EP, Banker ME, Brown MF, Clark JD, Dermenci A, Dowty ME, Fensome A, Fish S et al.. (2020) Discovery of Tyrosine Kinase 2 (TYK2) Inhibitor (PF-06826647) for the Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases. J Med Chem, 63 (22): 13561-13577. [PMID:32787094]

16. Goh KC, Novotny-Diermayr V, Hart S, Ong LC, Loh YK, Cheong A, Tan YC, Hu C, Jayaraman R, William AD et al.. (2012) TG02, a novel oral multi-kinase inhibitor of CDKs, JAK2 and FLT3 with potent anti-leukemic properties. Leukemia, 26 (2): 236-43. [PMID:21860433]

17. Hanan EJ, Liang J, Wang X, Blake RA, Blaquiere N, Staben ST. (2020) Monomeric Targeted Protein Degraders. J Med Chem, 63 (20): 11330-11361. [PMID:32352776]

18. Hanan EJ, van Abbema A, Barrett K, Blair WS, Blaney J, Chang C, Eigenbrot C, Flynn S, Gibbons P, Hurley CA et al.. (2012) Discovery of potent and selective pyrazolopyrimidine janus kinase 2 inhibitors. J Med Chem, 55 (22): 10090-107. [PMID:23061660]

19. He X, Chen X, Zhang H, Xie T, Ye XY. (2019) Selective Tyk2 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents: a patent review (2015-2018). Expert Opin Ther Pat, 29 (2): 137-149. [PMID:30621465]

20. Hudson R, Kozak J, Fatheree PR, Podesto DD, Brandt GEL, Fleury M, Beausoleil A-M, Huang X, Thalladi VR. (2016) Naphthyridine compounds as jak kinase inhibitors. Patent number: WO2016191524A1. Assignee: Theravance Biopharma R&D. Priority date: 28/05/2015. Publication date: 01/12/2016.

21. Ishizaki M, Muromoto R, Akimoto T, Sekine Y, Kon S, Diwan M, Maeda H, Togi S, Shimoda K, Oritani K et al.. (2014) Tyk2 is a therapeutic target for psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Int Immunol, 26 (5): 257-67. [PMID:24345760]

22. Ito M, Yamazaki S, Yamagami K, Kuno M, Morita Y, Okuma K, Nakamura K, Chida N, Inami M, Inoue T et al.. (2017) A novel JAK inhibitor, peficitinib, demonstrates potent efficacy in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model. J Pharmacol Sci, 133 (1): 25-33. [PMID:28117214]

23. Jones P, Storer RI, Sabnis YA, Wakenhut FM, Whitlock GA, England KS, Mukaiyama T, Dehnhardt CM, Coe JW, Kortum SW et al.. (2017) Design and Synthesis of a Pan-Janus Kinase Inhibitor Clinical Candidate (PF-06263276) Suitable for Inhaled and Topical Delivery for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases of the Lungs and Skin. J Med Chem, 60 (2): 767-786. [PMID:27983835]

24. Koudriakova T, Kreutter K, Leonard K, Rizzolio M, Smith RC, Tichenor MS, Wang A. (2018) Small molecule inhibitors of the JAK family of kinases. Patent number: WO2018112379A1. Assignee: Janssen Pharmaceutica. Priority date: 16/12/2016. Publication date: 21/06/2018.

25. Liu C, Lin J, Moslin R, Tokarski JS, Muckelbauer J, Chang C, Tredup J, Xie D, Park H, Li P et al.. (2019) Identification of Imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine Derivatives as Potent, Selective, and Orally Active Tyk2 JH2 Inhibitors. ACS Med Chem Lett, 10 (3): 383-388. [PMID:30891145]

26. Long DD, Smith C, Thompson C. (2020) DIMETHYL AMINO AZETIDINE AMIDES AS JAK INHIBITORS. Patent number: WO/2020/051105. Assignee: THERAVANCE BIOPHARMA. Priority date: 04/09/2018. Publication date: 12/03/2020.

27. Malerich JP, Lam JS, Hart B, Fine RM, Klebansky B, Tanga MJ, D'Andrea A. (2010) Diamino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives are selective inhibitors of TYK2 and JAK1 over JAK2 and JAK3. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 20 (24): 7454-7. [PMID:21106455]

28. Moslin R, Gardner D, Santella J, Zhang Y, Duncia JV, Liu C, Lin J, Tokarski JS, Strnad J, Pedicord D et al.. (2017) Identification of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine TYK2 pseudokinase ligands as potent and selective allosteric inhibitors of TYK2 signalling. Medchemcomm, 8 (4): 700-712. DOI: 10.1039/C6MD00560H [PMID:30108788]

29. Moslin RM, Weinstein DS, Wrobleski ST, Tokarski JS, Kumar A. (2014) AMIDE-SUBSTITUTED HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS USEFUL AS MODULATORS OF IL-12, IL-23 AND/OR IFN ALPHα RESPONSES. Patent number: WO2014074661A1. Assignee: Bristol-Myers Squibb. Priority date: 08/11/2012. Publication date: 15/05/2014.

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Janus kinase (JakA) family: tyrosine kinase 2. Last modified on 14/07/2021. Accessed on 17/10/2021. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=2269.