GM-CSF as a target in inflammatory/autoimmune disease was reviewed by Hamilton (2015) [2
In March 2021, results of the analysis of the inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profiles from COVID-19 patients (spanning the spectrum from mild to fatal disease) and archival samples from patients with severe influenza, identified elevated GM-CSF as a principal marker of severe COVID-19 immunopathology. Both IL-6 and GM-CSF elevations were detected as potent drivers of COVID-19 pathogenesis (associated with disease severity and coinciding with elevated markers of endothelial injury and thrombosis), GM-CSF distinguished COVID-19 from fatal influenza [7
]. The findings from this study supports continued targeting of GM-CSF as a therapy for patients with severe COVID-19. Currently the investigational anti-GM-CSF monoclonals lenzilumab
are in active COVID-19 clinical trials.