GM-CSF   Click here for help

GtoPdb Ligand ID: 4942

Synonyms: colony-stimulating factor | CSF
Immunopharmacology Ligand
Comment: GM-CSF as a target in inflammatory/autoimmune disease was reviewed by Hamilton (2015) [3].

COVID-19: In March 2021, results of the analysis of the inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profiles from COVID-19 patients (spanning the spectrum from mild to fatal disease) and archival samples from patients with severe influenza, identified elevated GM-CSF as a principal marker of severe COVID-19 immunopathology. Both IL-6 and GM-CSF elevations were detected as potent drivers of COVID-19 pathogenesis (associated with disease severity and coinciding with elevated markers of endothelial injury and thrombosis), GM-CSF distinguished COVID-19 from fatal influenza [8]. The findings from this study supports continued targeting of GM-CSF as a therapy for patients with severe COVID-19. Investigational anti-GM-CSF monoclonals that were repositioned for COVID-19 and entered into clinical trials in COVID-19 positive patients include lenzilumab, gimsilumab, otilimab and plonmarlimab [2].
Species: Human
Immunopharmacology Comments
GM-CSF is a cytokine that augments proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of granulocytes and is implicated in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including severe asthma [4] and rheumatoid arthrtis. Cytokine-neutralising experiments have showed GM-CSF to be a contributor to the anti-apoptotic activity of neutrophils generated by airway epithelial conditioned medium from more severe asthmatics [9]. Monoclonal antibodies that target GM-CSF are in advanced clinical development.