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Synonyms: colony-stimulating factor | CSF
Compound class: Endogenous peptide in human, mouse or rat
Comment: GM-CSF as a target in inflammatory/autoimmune disease was reviewed by Hamilton (2015) .
COVID-19: In March 2021, results of the analysis of the inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profiles from COVID-19 patients (spanning the spectrum from mild to fatal disease) and archival samples from patients with severe influenza, identified elevated GM-CSF as a principal marker of severe COVID-19 immunopathology. Both IL-6 and GM-CSF elevations were detected as potent drivers of COVID-19 pathogenesis (associated with disease severity and coinciding with elevated markers of endothelial injury and thrombosis), GM-CSF distinguished COVID-19 from fatal influenza . The findings from this study supports continued targeting of GM-CSF as a therapy for patients with severe COVID-19. Investigational anti-GM-CSF monoclonals that were repositioned for COVID-19 and entered into clinical trials in COVID-19 positive patients include lenzilumab, gimsilumab, otilimab and plonmarlimab .
|GM-CSF is a cytokine that augments proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of granulocytes and is implicated in several chronic inflammatory diseases, including severe asthma  and rheumatoid arthrtis. Cytokine-neutralising experiments have showed GM-CSF to be a contributor to the anti-apoptotic activity of neutrophils generated by airway epithelial conditioned medium from more severe asthmatics . Monoclonal antibodies that target GM-CSF are in advanced clinical development.|