colchicine   Click here for help

GtoPdb Ligand ID: 2367

Synonyms: Colcrys® | methoxylated analogue of XD1 | XD25
Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand
colchicine is an approved drug (FDA (2009))
Compound class: Synthetic organic
Comment: Colchicine is a microtubule inhibitor. It is a methoxylated analogue of XD1 (colchicein).

SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: There are a number of clinical trials looking at the efficacy of colchicine as a therapy to help treat, and/or prevent the development of, severe symptoms in COVID-19 patients [6]. It has been included in an arm of the UK's RECOVERY trial. Click here to see al clochicine studies on [8,10]. Colchicine is predicted to target inflammation and systemic clotting abnormalities that accompany COVID-19 [7,9-10]. This repositioning of colchicine is based both on the drug's established anti-inflammatory action, on its ability to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and on experimental evidence that colchicine-induced neutrophil depletion inhibits the release of the endogenous antimicrobial peptide α-defensin-1 (DEFα-1; DEFA1) and reduces thrombus formation in experimental models [2]. Background: contact factors (such as kallikrein and FXIIa) connect inflammation to the activation of coagulation, via promoting the production of DEFα-1 by activated neutrophils. DEFα-1 has pro-thrombotic activity, acting to both stabilise fibrin and thrombus formation and impeding clot resolution by reducing fibrinolysis [2].
In early 2021, preliminary data from the Phase 3 ColCORONA study (NCT04322682) provided some evidence that colchicine reduced hospitalisation (by 25%), progression to mechanical ventilation (by 50%) or death (by 44%) in >4100 confirmed COVID-19 patients, compared to placebo. The drug was given in an outpatient setting. A medRxiv preprint providing more details from the ColCORONA study was posted on 27th January 2021 (DOI: 10.1101/2021.01.26.21250494v1) prior to the peer review process being completed. In contrast a preprint of results from the colchicine arm of the RECOVERY trial (11340 hospitalised COVID-19 patients) reported no clinical benefit compared to standard care by any of the primary or secondary outcome measures (Horby et al., 2021; medRxiv
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2D Structure
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Physico-chemical Properties
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Hydrogen bond acceptors 3
Hydrogen bond donors 1
Rotatable bonds 6
Topological polar surface area 83.09
Molecular weight 399.17
XLogP 2.96
No. Lipinski's rules broken 0
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Canonical SMILES COc1c(OC)cc2c(c1OC)c1ccc(c(=O)cc1C(CC2)NC(=O)C)OC
Isomeric SMILES COc1c(OC)cc2c(c1OC)c1ccc(c(=O)cc1[C@H](CC2)NC(=O)C)OC
InChI InChI=1S/C22H25NO6/c1-12(24)23-16-8-6-13-10-19(27-3)21(28-4)22(29-5)20(13)14-7-9-18(26-2)17(25)11-15(14)16/h7,9-11,16H,6,8H2,1-5H3,(H,23,24)/t16-/m0/s1
Selectivity at ion channels
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Target Sp. Type Action Value Parameter Concentration range (M) Reference
Glycine Receptor (All subtypes) N/A Subunit-specific Inhibition - - < 1x10-6 4
Conc range: < 1x10-6 M α2 > α1 [4]
glycine receptor α2 subunit Hs Antagonist Antagonist 4.2 pIC50 -
pIC50 4.2 (IC50 6.4x10-5 M)
glycine receptor α1 subunit Hs Antagonist Antagonist 3.5 pIC50 -
pIC50 3.5 (IC50 3.24x10-4 M)
Selectivity at enzymes
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Target Sp. Type Action Value Parameter Concentration range (M) Reference
bromodomain containing 4 Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 4.7 pKd - 3
pKd 4.7 (Kd 2x10-5 M) [3]
Selectivity at other protein targets
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Target Sp. Type Action Value Parameter Concentration range (M) Reference
tubulin beta class I Primary target of this compound Hs Inhibitor Inhibition 8.0 pIC50 - 1
pIC50 8.0 (IC50 1.1x10-8 M) [1]
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