Top ▲

TIM3 (CD366)

Click here for help

Immunopharmacology Ligand target has curated data in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 2940

Nomenclature: TIM3 (CD366)

Family: Other immune checkpoint proteins, CD molecules

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 1 301 5q33.3 HAVCR2 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 5
Mouse 1 281 11 B1.1 Havcr2 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2
Rat 1 282 10q21 Havcr2 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
T-cell immunoglobulin mucin family member 3 | TIM-3 | TIMD-3
Database Links Click here for help
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Natural/Endogenous Ligands Click here for help
galectin 9 {Sp: Human}

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file go icon to follow link

Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Antibody Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
sabatolimab Peptide Hs Binding 9.8 pKd 8
pKd 9.8 (Kd 1.67x10-10 M) [8]
Description: Binding affinity for recombinant hTIM3 by BiaCore analysis
sabatolimab Peptide Monkey Binding 9.1 pKd 8
pKd 9.1 (Kd 7.24x10-10 M) [8]
Description: Binding affinity for recombinant cyno TIM3 by BiaCore analysis
sabatolimab Peptide Hs Inhibition 8.3 pIC50 8
pIC50 8.3 (IC50 4.74x10-9 M) [8]
Description: Inhibition of galectin-9 binding to hTIM3 using a MesoScale discovery platform with plate-bound TIM3 and Sulfo-Tagged galectin-9 as substrate
Immunopharmacology Comments
TIM3 is an immunoglobulin type protein expressed exclusively on the surface of differentiated Th1 cells [5]. It is a co-inhibitory receptor immune checkpoint protein that regulates macrophage activation, and inhibits Th1-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses, and promotes immunological tolerance. TIM3 is an immuno-oncology drug target [1,7], and may provide an additional strategy for cancers that develop adaptive resistance to current PD-1/PD-L1 axis immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies [3]. LY3321367 and MBG453 are anti-TIM3 monoclonals in early stage clinical trial: LY3321367 in Phase 1 trial NCT03099109 with LY3300054 (a novel anti-PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor), and MBG453 ± spartalizumab (PDR001, anti-PD-1) vs. both advanced solid tumours (NCT02608268, Phase 1/2) and hematological malignancies (NCT03066648, Phase 1). Symphogen have the anti-TIM3 mAb Sym023 in their immuno-oncology pipeline (see Phase 1 trial NCT03489343). Tesaro's anti-TIM3 mAb TSR-022 is also in Phase 1 development (NCT02817633).
Cell Type Associations
Immuno Cell Type:  T cells
Cell Ontology Term:   T-helper 1 cell (CL:0000545)
Comment:  TIM3 is a selective marker of differentiated Th1 cells. Upregulation of TIM3 expression is reported as a biomarker associated with adaptive resistance to PD-1 blockade.
References:  3
Immuno Cell Type:  Natural killer cells
Comment:  TIM3 is expressed by mature NK cells, including human decidual NK cells. Its expression is upregulated on NK cells from patients with melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma. Elevated expression impairs NK cell effector functions.
References:  2,4,9
Immuno Cell Type:  Innate lymphoid cells
Cell Ontology Term:   group 3 innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001071)
Comment:  TIM3 expression has been reported on human ILC3s.
References:  4
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
Immuno Process:  T cell (activation)
Immuno Process:  Immune regulation
Immuno Process:  Immune system development
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
Immuno Process:  Chemotaxis & migration
Immuno Process:  Cellular signalling
Immuno Process:  B cell (activation)
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology Click here for help
Disease:  myocarditis
Description: Myocarditis can be caused by a number of mechanisms, including viral infection, drug reaction or a general inflammatory condition.
References:  6
Biologically Significant Variants Click here for help
Type:  Naturally occurring mutation
Species:  Human
Description:  An homozygous germline mutation in the TIM-3 gene HAVCR2, has been identified in a patient with autoinflammatory symptoms and early onset recurrent febrile myocarditis.
Amino acid change:  Tyr82Cys
Nucleotide change:  245 A > G
General Comments
This protein contains an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain that resembles the antibody variable domain, that has been coined the 'V-set domain'. The genes for all human V-set domain containing proteins are listed in HGNC gene group 590. The C-type lectin galectin-9 is a TIM3 ligand [1].


Show »

1. Anderson AC. (2014) Tim-3: an emerging target in the cancer immunotherapy landscape. Cancer Immunol Res, 2 (5): 393-8. [PMID:24795351]

2. da Silva IP, Gallois A, Jimenez-Baranda S, Khan S, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK, Osman I, Bhardwaj N. (2014) Reversal of NK-cell exhaustion in advanced melanoma by Tim-3 blockade. Cancer Immunol Res, 2 (5): 410-22. [PMID:24795354]

3. Koyama S, Akbay EA, Li YY, Herter-Sprie GS, Buczkowski KA, Richards WG, Gandhi L, Redig AJ, Rodig SJ, Asahina H et al.. (2016) Adaptive resistance to therapeutic PD-1 blockade is associated with upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints. Nat Commun, 7: 10501. [PMID:26883990]

4. Mariotti FR, Quatrini L, Munari E, Vacca P, Moretta L. (2019) Innate Lymphoid Cells: Expression of PD-1 and Other Checkpoints in Normal and Pathological Conditions. Front Immunol, 10: 910. [PMID:31105707]

5. Monney L, Sabatos CA, Gaglia JL, Ryu A, Waldner H, Chernova T, Manning S, Greenfield EA, Coyle AJ, Sobel RA et al.. (2002) Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease. Nature, 415 (6871): 536-41. [PMID:11823861]

6. Pernaa N, Vakkuri A, Arvonen M, Kuismin O, Santaniemi W, Glumoff V, Lappi-Blanco E, Lantto U, Okkonen M, Kaikkonen K et al.. (2024) Germline HAVCR2/TIM-3 Checkpoint Inhibitor Receptor Deficiency in Recurrent Autoinflammatory Myocarditis. J Clin Immunol, 44 (3): 81. [PMID:38485795]

7. Romero D. (2016) Immunotherapy: PD-1 says goodbye, TIM-3 says hello. Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 13 (4): 202-3. [PMID:26977783]

8. Schwartz S, Patel N, Longmire T, Jayaraman P, Jiang X, Lu H, Baker L, Velez J, Ramesh R, Wavreille AS et al.. (2022) Characterization of sabatolimab, a novel immunotherapy with immuno-myeloid activity directed against TIM-3 receptor. Immunother Adv, 2 (1): ltac019. [PMID:36196369]

9. Xu L, Huang Y, Tan L, Yu W, Chen D, Lu C, He J, Wu G, Liu X, Zhang Y. (2015) Increased Tim-3 expression in peripheral NK cells predicts a poorer prognosis and Tim-3 blockade improves NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in human lung adenocarcinoma. Int Immunopharmacol, 29 (2): 635-641. [PMID:26428847]

How to cite this page

CD molecules: TIM3 (CD366). Last modified on 18/03/2024. Accessed on 21/06/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,