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Targets Associated to Immuno Processes - Tissue repair

Jump to: GPCR | Ion Channels | Enzymes | Catalytic Receptors | Transporters | Other Protein Targets |

Tissue repair Download as CSV
GPCRs
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
CCR2
(Chemokine receptors)
  • wound healing involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002246) NAS
  • inflammatory response to wounding (GO:0090594) ISS
CCR2 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CCR2 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [2] ...
PAR1
(Proteinase-activated receptors)
  • connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing (GO:0002248) IDA
PAR1 has been found to mediate the effects of neutrophil elastase (NE) on γδ T cell activation, as the PAR1 inhibitor abrogates NE (from neutrophils)-induced activation of these T cells [46] ...
Ion Channels
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
P2X5
(P2X receptors)
  • regulation of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration (GO:0043416) ISO
P2X ligand-gated ion channels elicit pro-inflammatory immune responses upon activation by extracellular ATP that acts as a DAMP when released from damaged or infected cells [10-11] ...
Enzymes
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
5-LOX
(Lipoxygenases)
  • regulation of inflammatory response to wounding (GO:0106014) ISS
5-LOX is included in GtoImmuPdb because of its involvement in eicosanoid turnover and because it is being actively pursued as a molecular target for the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics [40] ...
Caspase 3
(C14: Caspase)
  • wound healing (GO:0042060) IEA
Defective caspase 3 expression in immune effector cells may influence susceptibility to Kawasaki disease, an acute vasculitis syndrome affecting small- and medium-sized arteries of infants and children [32] ...
enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit
(2.1.1.43 Histone methyltransferases (HMTs))
  • skeletal muscle satellite cell maintenance involved in skeletal muscle regeneration (GO:0014834) IEA
EZH2 is involved in hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis, with notable participation in regulating the differentiation and function of T cells. This role suggests potential applications in immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune disorders [48] ...
Haem oxygenase 1
(Haem oxygenase)
  • wound healing involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002246) IMP
Heme oxygenase (HO) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme, catalyzing the oxidative cleavage of heme (Fe-protoporphyrin-IX) to render equimolar amounts of biliverdin, ferrous iron (Fe2+), and carbon monoxide (CO).

Heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is a Nrf2-regulated gene, whose expression is upregulated as a cytoprotective mechanism in response to cellular stresses including inflammation, ischemia, hypoxia, hyperoxia, hyperthermia, or radiation.

HO1 has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects in vascular cells, playing an important role in the prevention of vascular inflammation and atherogenesis (reviewed in [4] ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase 14
(p38 subfamily)
  • myoblast differentiation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration (GO:0014835) IMP
p38 MAP kinases are ubiquitous, highly conserved enzymes which regulate the production of proinflammatory mediators (such as TNFα and IL-1) in response to inflammatory cytokines or environmental stress [19-20,26,34,36,50] ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5
(STE11 family)
  • wound healing (GO:0042060) IEA
ASK1 is included in the GToImmuPdb as it is a molecular target for anti-fibrotic drug development. This kinase acts upstream of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases [21] ...
p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1
(PAKA subfamily)
  • wound healing (GO:0042060) IMP
PAK1 is reported to modulate a pro-inflammatory PPARγ/NF-κB cascade in intestinal inflammation, that may be relevant in inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer [15] ...
protein kinase C theta
(Delta subfamily)
  • tissue regeneration (GO:0042246) IEP
PKC-θ is a novel subfamily PKC found predominantly in hematopoietic cells [5] ...
tec protein tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • tissue regeneration (GO:0042246) IBA
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [7] ...
TXK tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • tissue regeneration (GO:0042246) IBA
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [7] ...
Catalytic Receptors
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
NLRP6
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • wound healing (GO:0042060) IEA
NLRP6 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR). It is a member of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NALP) subfamily of PRRs. The presence of NALPs in inflammasomes underlies their involvement in regulating proinflammatory caspases (esp. caspase 1) ...
transforming growth factor beta receptor 1
(Type I receptor serine/threonine kinases)
  • wound healing (GO:0042060) TAS
The role of TGFBR1 in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
Transporters
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
NRAMP1
(SLC11 family of proton-coupled metal ion transporters)
  • wound healing (GO:0042060) ISS
NRAMP1 / SLC11A1 appears to be involved in macrophage antimicrobial action against intracellular pathogens, and although its precise mechanism is not fully resolved, evidence indicates its involvement in the activation of phagocytes and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Polymorphisms in the human SLC11A1 gene have been associated with susceptibility to several infections [8,41-42] ...
Other Protein Targets
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
notch receptor 1
(Notch receptors)
  • tissue regeneration (GO:0042246) IEA
NOTCH1 and its ligand Delta-like 4 (DLL4) play a dominant role in mediating the effects of Notch signaling in T cells during Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Anti-NOTCH1 or anti-DLL4 antibodies controlled GvHD [47] ...
sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 10
(Sialic acid binding Ig like lectins)
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response to wounding (GO:0106015) IPI
Siglec-10 is an inhibitory co-receptor that is expressed by cells of the innate immune system. Its interaction with CD24 reduces the T cell response to danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) [45] ...