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D2 receptor

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Immunopharmacology Ligand target has curated data in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 215

Nomenclature: D2 receptor

Family: Dopamine receptors

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 443 11q23 DRD2 dopamine receptor D2 8,43
Mouse 7 444 9 A5.3 Drd2 dopamine receptor D2 84
Rat 7 444 8q24 Drd2 dopamine receptor D2 8,23
Gene and Protein Information Comments
The human D2 receptor exists as two alternatively spliced isoforms [42]. The 443 amino acid receptor is the long form (D2L). The short form (D2S) is 414 amino acids long.
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
D2A and D2B | dopamine D2 receptor | dopamine receptor 2 | D2 receptor | D2R | D2(415) and D2(444)
Database Links Click here for help
Specialist databases
GPCRDB drd2_human (Hs), drd2_mouse (Mm), drd2_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet
Pharos
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Selected 3D Structures Click here for help
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Structure of the D2 dopamine receptor bound to the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone
PDB Id:  6CM4
Ligand:  risperidone
Resolution:  2.9Å
Species:  Human
References:  127
Natural/Endogenous Ligands Click here for help
dopamine

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file go icon to follow link

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
rotigotine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 10.2 pKi 36
pKi 10.2 (Ki 6x10-11 M) [36]
aripiprazole Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Partial agonist 9.7 pKi 100
pKi 9.7 [100]
brexpiprazole Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Hs Partial agonist 9.5 pKi 72
pKi 9.5 (Ki 3x10-10 M) [72]
lisuride Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Partial agonist 9.2 – 9.5 pKi 82
pKi 9.2 – 9.5 [82]
aripiprazole Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Partial agonist 9.1 pKi 133
pKi 9.1 (Ki 8x10-10 M) [133]
cabergoline Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 9.0 – 9.2 pKi 82
pKi 9.0 – 9.2 [82]
terguride Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 9.1 pKi 82
pKi 9.1 [82]
roxindole Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 8.6 pKi 82
pKi 8.6 [82]
UNC9975 Small molecule or natural product Hs Biased agonist 8.6 pKi 3
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.6x10-9 M) [3]
Description: β-arrestin 2 biased agonist.
UNC0006 Small molecule or natural product Hs Biased agonist 8.3 pKi 3
pKi 8.3 (Ki 5x10-9 M) [3]
Description: β-arrestin 2 biased agonist.
cariprazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 8.2 pKi 1
pKi 8.2 (Ki 5.7x10-9 M) [1]
Description: Binding affinity to human dopamine D2L receptor
MLS1547 Small molecule or natural product Hs Biased agonist 8.2 pKi 39
pKi 8.2 (Ki 5.9x10-9 M) [39]
Description: Biased agonist for G-protein coupling to Gi.
(-)-N-porphynorapomorphine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 7.5 – 8.9 pKi 40,98
pKi 7.5 – 8.9 [40,98]
ropinirole Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 8.1 pKi 47
pKi 8.1 (Ki 7.2x10-9 M) [47]
LP-44 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 8.1 pKi 67
pKi 8.1 (Ki 7.3x10-9 M) [67]
sumanirole Small molecule or natural product Hs Full agonist 8.1 pKi 79
pKi 8.1 (Ki 9x10-9 M) [79]
bromocriptine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Full agonist 7.3 – 8.3 pKi 40,82,98
pKi 7.3 – 8.3 [40,82,98]
apomorphine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Partial agonist 7.6 pKi 116
pKi 7.6 [116]
pergolide Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 7.5 – 7.6 pKi 82
pKi 7.5 – 7.6 [82]
bromocriptine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Partial agonist 7.3 pKi 116
pKi 7.3 [116]
UNC9994 Small molecule or natural product Hs Biased agonist 7.1 pKi 3
pKi 7.1 (Ki 7.9x10-8 M) [3]
Description: β-arrestin 2 biased agonist.
compound 3 [PMID: 23134120] Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.9 pKi 117
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.18x10-7 M) [117]
piribedil Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 6.8 – 6.9 pKi 82
pKi 6.8 – 6.9 [82]
LP-211 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.8 pKi 68
pKi 6.8 (Ki 1.42x10-7 M) [68]
LP-12 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.7 pKi 67
pKi 6.7 (Ki 2.24x10-7 M) [67]
apomorphine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 5.7 – 7.5 pKi 24,40,82,98,114
pKi 5.7 – 7.5 [24,40,82,98,114]
7-OH-DPAT Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.6 – 7.6 pKi 24,40,71
pKi 5.6 – 7.6 [24,40,71]
HS665 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.3 pKi 117
pKi 6.3 (Ki 4.5x10-7 M) [117]
quinpirole Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 4.9 – 7.7 pKi 24,81,88,114,116,125
pKi 4.9 – 7.7 [24,81,88,114,116,125]
pramipexole Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.1 – 7.4 pKi 81,98
pKi 5.1 – 7.4 [81,98]
7-OH-DPAT Small molecule or natural product Rn Full agonist 6.2 pKi 32
pKi 6.2 [32]
dopamine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Full agonist 4.7 – 7.2 pKi 24,40,98
pKi 4.7 – 7.2 [24,40,98]
PD 128907 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.4 – 6.4 pKi 90,98
pKi 5.4 – 6.4 [90,98]
dopamine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Ligand has a PDB structure Immunopharmacology Ligand Rn Full agonist 5.3 – 6.4 pKi 100,116
pKi 5.3 – 6.4 [100,116]
7-trans-OH-PIPAT Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.6 pKi 32
pKi 5.6 [32]
quinelorane Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.5 – 5.7 pKi 83,114
pKi 5.5 – 5.7 [83,114]
benzquinamide Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 5.4 pKi 44
pKi 5.4 (Ki 3.964x10-6 M) [44]
quinpirole Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Full agonist 5.2 pKi 116
pKi 5.2 [116]
UNC9975 Small molecule or natural product Hs Biased agonist 9.0 pEC50 3
pEC50 9.0 (EC50 1.1x10-9 M) [3]
Description: This compound shows biased agonism towards D2-mediated β-arrestin-2 translocation measured using the Tango assay.
UNC0006 Small molecule or natural product Hs Biased agonist 8.9 pEC50 3
pEC50 8.9 (EC50 1.2x10-9 M) [3]
Description: Biased agonist of D2-mediated β-arrestin-2 translocation measured using the Tango assay.
UNC9994 Small molecule or natural product Hs Biased agonist 8.2 pEC50 3
pEC50 8.2 (EC50 6.1x10-9 M) [3]
Description: This compound shows biased agonism towards D2-mediated β-arrestin-2 translocation measured using the Tango assay.
aripiprazole Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Partial agonist 7.4 pEC50 3
pEC50 7.4 (EC50 3.8x10-8 M) [3]
Description: Measuring cAMP production via the Gi-coupled signaling pathway
vilazodone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 6.2 pIC50 49
pIC50 6.2 (IC50 6.66x10-7 M) [49]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
Terguride and roxindole have been reported to be partial agonists at the D2S receptor and antagonists at the D2L receptor.
Although benzquinamide has higher affinity for α-adrenoceptors, it is suggested in [44] that it is more likely that drug-induced modulation of D2 receptor activity is responsible for the drug's antiemetic action.
Allosteric modulation of the D2 receptor by SB269652 only occurs when D2 receptor dimers form, with the ligand assuming a 'bitopic' pose and interacting with different sites on each of the two protomers in the dimer [66].
UNC0006, UNC9994 and UNC9975 are partial biased agonists of β-arrestin 2 recruitment at the D2 receptor as measured using three different assays (β-arrestin-2 translocation Tango assay, DiscoveRx assay and BRET-based β-arrestin-2 recruitment assay) [3]. Tango assay pEC50 values and binding Kis are provided in the table above.
G protein-biased, cariprazine-based partial agonists are reported in [111].
Antagonists
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Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
[3H]nemonapride Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 10.9 pKd 73
pKd 10.9 [73]
[3H]spiperone Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Rn Antagonist 10.2 pKd 23,50,136
pKd 10.2 (Kd 5.7x10-11 M) [23,50,136]
[3H]raclopride Small molecule or natural product Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Rn Antagonist 8.9 pKd 63
pKd 8.9 (Kd 1.2x10-9 M) [63]
[3H]N-methylspiperone Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Rn Antagonist 10.7 pKi 100
pKi 10.7 [100]
benperidol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 10.6 pKi 107
pKi 10.6 (Ki 2.7x10-11 M) [107]
blonanserin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.9 pKi 86
pKi 9.9 (Ki 1.4x10-10 M) [86]
pipotiazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Hs Antagonist 9.7 pKi 115
pKi 9.7 (Ki 2x10-10 M) [115]
risperidone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 9.4 pKi 10
pKi 9.4 (Ki 4.4x10-10 M) [10]
perphenazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 – 9.6 pKi 60,104
pKi 8.9 – 9.6 (Ki 1.4x10-9 – 2.6x10-10 M) [60,104]
perospirone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.2 pKi 105
pKi 9.2 (Ki 6x10-10 M) [105]
eticlopride Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 9.2 pKi 71,121
pKi 9.2 [71,121]
trifluoperazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 8.9 – 9.0 pKi 60,106
pKi 8.9 – 9.0 (Ki 1.3x10-9 – 9.6x10-10 M) [60,106]
asenapine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKi 110
pKi 8.9 (Ki 1.2x10-9 M) [110]
terguride Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKi 82
pKi 8.9 [82]
spiperone Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.4 – 9.4 pKi 71,83,116,121
pKi 8.4 – 9.4 [71,83,116,121]
fluphenazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.8 pKi 97
pKi 8.8 (Ki 1.44x10-9 M) [97]
flupentixol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.8 pKi 40
pKi 8.8 (Ki 1.5x10-9 M) [40]
nafadotride Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.8 pKi 100
pKi 8.8 [100]
lurasidone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.8 pKi 53
pKi 8.8 (Ki 1.68x10-9 M) [53]
olanzapine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.7 pKi 10
pKi 8.7 (Ki 2.1x10-9 M) [10]
mesoridazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.7 pKi 31
pKi 8.7 (Ki 2.2x10-9 M) [31]
roxindole Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 82
pKi 8.6 [82]
ziprasidone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 10
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.8x10-9 M) [10]
nafadotride Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.5 pKi 99
pKi 8.5 [99]
raclopride Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 7.7 – 9.3 pKi 100,116
pKi 7.7 – 9.3 [100,116]
domperidone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.5 pKi 116
pKi 8.5 [116]
sertindole Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.0 – 8.9 pKi 59-60,104
pKi 8.0 – 8.9 (Ki 9.1x10-9 – 1.2x10-9 M) [59-60,104]
prochlorperazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 8.4 pKi 12
pKi 8.4 (Ki 3.61x10-9 M) [12]
haloperidol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Antagonist 8.3 pKi 116
pKi 8.3 [116]
(+)-sulpiride Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.2 pKi 40
pKi 8.2 (Ki 6x10-9 M) [40]
L-741,626 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.9 – 8.5 pKi 45,62
pKi 7.9 – 8.5 [45,62]
domperidone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.9 – 8.4 pKi 40,114
pKi 7.9 – 8.4 (Ki 1.26x10-8 – 3.98x10-9 M) [40,114]
loxapine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.9 – 8.3 pKi 60,106
pKi 7.9 – 8.3 (Ki 1.2x10-8 – 5x10-9 M) [60,106]
(+)-butaclamol Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.5 – 8.7 pKi 24,40,71,121
pKi 7.5 – 8.7 [24,40,71,121]
haloperidol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 7.4 – 8.8 pKi 40,71,81,114,122
pKi 7.4 – 8.8 [40,71,81,114,122]
raclopride Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.0 pKi 83
pKi 8.0 (Ki 1x10-8 M) [83]
zotepine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 8.0 pKi 103
pKi 8.0 (Ki 1.1x10-8 M) [103]
(-)-stepholidine Small molecule or natural product Hs Antagonist 7.9 pKi 80
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.16x10-8 M) [80]
pimozide Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.0 – 8.8 pKi 40,114
pKi 7.0 – 8.8 [40,114]
amisulpride Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Hs Antagonist 7.8 – 8.0 pKi 75,114,116
pKi 7.9 – 8.0 [75,114]
pKi 7.8 [116]
pimozide Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 7.6 pKi 116
pKi 7.6 [116]
sulpiride Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.2 – 7.9 pKi 24
pKi 7.2 – 7.9 (Ki 6x10-8 – 1.2x10-8 M) [24]
metoclopramide Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Mm Antagonist 7.5 pKi 77
pKi 7.5 (Ki 2.88x10-8 M) [77]
chlorpromazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Antagonist 7.5 pKi 116
pKi 7.5 [116]
lumateperone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.5 pKi 69,113
pKi 7.5 (Ki 3.2x10-8 M) [69,113]
chlorpromazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 7.0 – 7.6 pKi 40,114
pKi 7.0 – 7.6 [40,114]
quetiapine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.2 pKi 10
pKi 7.2 (Ki 6.9x10-8 M) [10]
(-)-sulpiride Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.3 – 8.0 pKi 40,114,121
pKi 6.3 – 8.0 (Ki 5.2x10-7 – 1x10-8 M) [40,114,121]
(+)-sulpiride Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 7.0 pKi 116
pKi 7.0 [116]
ML321 Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Hs Antagonist 7.0 pKi 130-131
pKi 7.0 (Ki 1x10-7 M) [130-131]
trans-flupenthixol Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.9 pKi 40
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.2x10-7 M) [40]
(+)-UH232 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.4 – 7.1 pKi 40,116
pKi 6.4 – 7.1 [40,116]
promazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 6.5 pKi 25
pKi 6.5 (Ki 3x10-7 M) [25]
(+)-UH232 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.4 pKi 116
pKi 6.4 [116]
clozapine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 5.8 – 6.9 pKi 40,71,110,114,121
pKi 5.8 – 6.9 [40,71,110,114,121]
clozapine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.2 pKi 116
pKi 6.2 [116]
(+)-S-14297 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 5.5 pKi 83
pKi 5.5 [83]
(+)-SCH-23390 Small molecule or natural product Hs Antagonist 5.3 pKi 40
pKi 5.3 [40]
iloperidone Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 7.0 pIC50 119
pIC50 7.0 (IC50 1.1x10-7 M) [119]
Description: Measuring displacement of [3H]spiperone from rat striatum.
metopimazine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug N/A Antagonist - -
alizapride Small molecule or natural product Approved drug N/A Antagonist - -
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
Terguride/roxindole have been reported to act as partial agonists at the D2S receptor and as antagonists at the D2L receptor.
Perphenazine is an antagonist at both the D2S and D2L receptors [120].
The approved drug mesoridazine, although consisting of 4 stereoisomers, appears to be selective for the D2 receptor [31], especially when examining the data for the two highest affinity isomers, compounds 2 and 5. Across the 3 dopamine receptors, compounds 2 and 5 have the same order of potency (D2>D3>D1). The data shown in the table above is for compound 2. Mesoridazine is also a selective antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor.
Zotepine has a Ki of 5.4nM for the D2S receptor isoform [103].
The β-arrestin biased ligands UNC9975, UNC0006 and UNC9994, do not activate D2 receptor-mediated Gi-regulated inhibition of cAMP production, but rather are functionally-selective antagonists of the interaction between D2 receptor and β-arrestin-2 [3].
Allosteric Modulators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
SB269652 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 6.4 pKB 66
pKB 6.4 (KB 4.16x10-7 M) [66]
Description: Allosteric reduction of dopamine binding in a radioligand binding assay
Immunopharmacology Comments
D2 receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney have a protective effect. In contrast, impaired D2 receptor function results in renal inflammation and organ damage [134]. Taken together with evidence that Drd2 knockout mice have a phenotype that includes a profound brain inflammation, these findings suggest that the dopaminergic system acts as an endogenous, evolutionarily conserved, anti-inflammatory mechanism. Evidence from Han et al. (2017) [46] indicates that D2 receptor-induced anti-inflammatory effects in acute pancreatitis models are mediated via a protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A)-dependent Akt/NF-κB pathway.
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:1900168 positive regulation of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor secretion IDA
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0045824 negative regulation of innate immune response IEA
Immuno Process:  Antigen presentation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 2 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0002031 G protein-coupled receptor internalization IEA
GO:0002092 positive regulation of receptor internalization IEA
Immuno Process:  Immune regulation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0045824 negative regulation of innate immune response IEA
Primary Transduction Mechanisms Click here for help
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family
G protein independent mechanism
Adenylate cyclase inhibition
Other - See Comments
Comments:  Dopamine D2 receptors can inhibit the Akt (protein kinase B) pathway through a β-arrestin 2/Akt/protein phosphatase 2A complex [14-15].
D2L-induced inhibition of Akt is reported in pituitary lactotrophs, with D2S-induced ERK stimulation also reported in these cells [52,91].
References:  54,85,87
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms Click here for help
Transducer Effector/Response
Potassium channel
Other - See Comments
Comments:  β-arrestin recruitment [39,80,130-131].
References:  30
Tissue Distribution Click here for help
Adrenal cortex.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Autoradiography.
References:  4
Pituitary, substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA).
Species:  Human
Technique:  In situ histochemistry.
References:  41,51
Clusters of D2 expressing neurons in limbic and sensory regions of the adult mouse brain cortex.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Brain
References:  57
Prelimbic cortex.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Confocal analysis in the Bac-GFP reporter mouse.
References:  135
Hippocampus.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Bac-GFP reporter mouse.
References:  93
Pityitary (autoradiography), substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) (immunohistochemistry in BAC transgenics).
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Autoradiography, immunohistochemistry.
References:  48,96
Striatonigral neurons.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunofluorescence.
References:  9
Striatum.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridization.
References:  26
Pituitary, substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ histochemistry.
References:  23
Cerebral, mesenteric and renal arteries.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Autoradiography.
References:  5