Asthma

Disease ID:1184
Name:Asthma
Associated with:6 targets
6 immuno-relevant targets
77 immuno-relevant ligands
Description
A bronchial disease characterized by chronic inflammation and narrowing of the airways; caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors.
Database Links
Disease Ontology: DOID:2841
OMIM: 600807

Targets

ACKR1
Comments:  ACKR1 may play a role in the temporal regulation of asthma pathophysiology and symptoms.
MMP2
Comments:  MMP2 and MMP9 can promote the egress of inflammatory cells into airway lumen, suggesting a protective anti-inflammatory role in asthma. MMP2/MMP9 gelatinolytic activity is elevated in the sputum of asthmatic patients
MMP8
Comments:  MMP8 plays a protective role in asthma by promoting the clearance of recruited neutrophils.
MMP9
Comments:  MMP2 and MMP9 can promote the egress of inflammatory cells into airway lumen, suggesting a protective anti-inflammatory role in asthma. MMP2/MMP9 gelatinolytic activity is elevated in the sputum of asthmatic patients.
MMP12
Comments:  a common serine variant of the MMP12 gene in human (rs652438) causes more aggressive extracellular matrix degradation and is positively associated with disease severity. Thus MMP12 is a drug target for novel asthma therapeutics.
ADAM33
Comments:  ADAM33 is implicated in the pathology of asthma.

Ligands

Ligand Approved Immuno References Clinical comments
tamatinib
Clinical Use: Tamatinib is a potential drug for treatment of the inflammation associated with and causing bronchial asthma resulting from allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The compound may have beneficial effects in additional inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune conditions.
Immuno Disease Comments: This is the active metaboloite of fostamatinib and may have clinical utility in asthma.
risankizumab
Clinical Use: Risankizumab has reached Phase II clinical trial for Crohn's disease (CD), psoriasis, and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Results from the first-in-human proof-of-concept trial in patients with psoriasis are reported in [23].
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for asthma (see NCT02443298).
tiotropium  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: A bronchodilator used in the treatment of chronic obstructuve pulmonary disease (COPD).
In May 2015 the US FDA approved a fixed-dose combination of tiotropium bromide and (Stiolto Respimat®) as 'a long-term, once-daily maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema' Drugs.com. Later in 2015, the FDA expanded approval to include tiotropium's use as a single agent (Spiriva Respimat®) as maintenance treatment of asthma in adults and adolescents.
Immuno Disease Comments: Bronchodilator used as maintenance therapy for asthma.
theophylline  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the treatment of symptoms and reversible airways obstruction in conditions such as asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Immuno Disease Comments: Approved drug for asthma.
salbutamol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Highly selective β2-adrenoceptor agonist used in the treatment of COPD and asthma.
In April 2015, the FDA expanded approval to include treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease and for the treatment of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB).
Immuno Disease Comments: Used to treat bronchospasm due to asthma.
salmeterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Salmeterol is approved in a fixed-dose inhalation powder formulation with the long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist (AirDuo RespiClickTM) for the treatment of asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: Used to treat bronchospasm due to asthma.
IL-33
Immuno Disease Comments: An IL-1 family cytokine involved in the initiation of the type 2 immune response during parasitic infection and allergic diseases such as asthma. IL-33 is an investigational therapeutic target for asthma.
venetoclax  [  (Drugs.com) ] 42
Clinical Use: Venetoclax (in combination with and in comparison with currently approved anti-neoplastics) was assessed in Phase III clinical trials as a potential treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). See NCT02005471 and NCT02242942 for full details.
In January 2016, the US FDA granted venetoclax (in combination with hypomethylating agents) breakthrough designation as a first-line treatment for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are ineligible to receive high-dose chemotherapy.

Full marketing authorisation: In April 2016, the US FDA granted full approval for venetoclax as an oral treatment regimen for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with 17p deletion (detected by an FDA-approved test), who have received at least one prior therapy.
Immuno Disease Comments: Venetoclax (ABT-199) has been shown to induce apoptosis of airway inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2, Th17 and dendritic cells) suggesting a potiential role in management of eosinophilic or corticosteroid resistant-neutrophilic airway inflammation.
GSK2245035
Clinical Use: GSK2245035 has completed Phase 2 clinical trials in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Results from early clinical evaluation in trials for allergic rhinitis, NCT01480271 (Phase 1) and NCT01607372 (Phase 2), are reported in [43], and results from NCT02446613 reported in [13].
Immuno Disease Comments: Experimental compound with clinical potential in asthma.
GW766994
Clinical Use: GW766994 has completed Phase 2 clinical trial (NCT01160224) in patients with mild-moderate asthma who have high sputum eosinophilia. Safety and efficacy in early clinical trial are reported by Neighbour et al. (2014) [34].
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for mild-moderate asthma (NCT01160224).
compound 7f [PMID: 29283260] 29
Immuno Disease Comments: 7f has shown efficacious anti-inflammatory activity in HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.
MK-0359
Clinical Use: MK-0359 exhibited clinical efficacy in a Phase 2 study in asthma patients (NCT00482898), but caused gastrointestinal adverse effects [27]. It has completed Phase 2 studies in rheumatoid arthritis (NCT00482417) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (NCT00482235).
Immuno Disease Comments: Completed Phase 2 clinical evaluation in asthma- see NCT00482898
UCB4144
Clinical Use: UCB4144 (as research code VR942) has completed Phase 1 clinical trial in healthy subjects and patients with mild asthma. Positive results are reported in an abstract presented at the American Thoracic Society International Conference in Washington DC in 2017 (Abstract 4681), but these results have not been formally published in a peer-reviewed article.
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 1 clinical candidate for asthma- see NCT02473939
levosalbutamol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Levosalbutamol is a SABA drug administered by inhalation, for the prevention or treatment of airway obstruction in asthmatic patients (≥4 years-adults).
Immuno Disease Comments: Approved inhalation drug for treating/preventing asthma attacks.
ipratropium  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used to treat bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Immuno Disease Comments: Bronchodilator used in treatment for bronchospasm in asthma.
cetirizine  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Cetirizine is used to control the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma. It does not cause the drowsiness associated with some other antihistamines. In many countries this drug is available without a prescription. An ophthalmic solution containing cetirizine hydrochloride (0.24%, Zerviate®) was FDA approved in June 2017.
Immuno Disease Comments: Non-sedating antihistamine approved for allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma.
dexamethasone  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Dexamethasone may be administered by various routes to treat myriad inflammatory condtions, including inflammatory dermatoses, asthma, allergic or inflammatory nasal conditions, and nasal polyps, endocrine disorders and many more.
Immuno Disease Comments: Glucocorticoid drug used to treat many inflammatory condtions including asthma.
prednisolone  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: This drug used as an antiinflammatory or immunosuppressive agent and is indicated for the treatment of various inflammatory pathologies, including acute asthma, suppression of inflammatory and allergic disorders, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Immuno Disease Comments: Glucocorticoid drug used to treat many inflammatory condtions including asthma.
zafirlukast  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: Leukotriene receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of asthma.
montelukast  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the treatment of asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: Leukotriene receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of asthma.
procaterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is no information regarding approval for use of this drug on the US FDA or European Medicines Agency websites, although the compound does have an INN. Other national approval agencies may have granted marketing authorisation. See Drugs.com's International Drug Names list for futher information.
Immuno Disease Comments: β2-adrenoceptor agonist approved outside of the EU and US for the treatment of asthma.
formoterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Formoterol is used to manage the symptoms of asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In November 2014, the EU EMA granted marketing authorisation of the fixed-dose combination medication Duaklir Genuair TM ( bromide/formoterol fumarate) as a maintenance bronchodilator for patients with COPD.
In April 2016, the US FDA approved the fixed-dose inhalation aerosol formulation, plus formoterol (Bevespi Aerosphere®) for long-term, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema.
Immuno Disease Comments: β2-adrenoceptor agonist approved for the treatment of asthma.
zileuton  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: 5-LOX inhibitor approved to treat asthma.
beclometasone dipropionate  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used in the management of asthma symptoms and the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
Immuno Disease Comments: Glucocorticoid drug used to treat asthma.
tranilast  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Approved to treat bronchial asthma and keloid and hypertrophic scars. There is no information regarding approval for clinical use of this drug on the US FDA or European Medicines Agency websites. Individual national approval agencies may have granted marketing authorisation.
Immuno Disease Comments: An approved drug with some antihistaminergic action..
JNJ-10311795
Immuno Disease Comments: An experimental dual inhibitor of the leukocyte proteases cathepsin G and chymase with potential anti-inflammatory activity.
fluticasone  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: The approved drug can contain fluticasone propionate. This formulation is used to treat various inflammatory conditions including aleviation of inflammatory and pruritic symptoms of dermatoses and psoriasis (applied topically), for controlling symptoms of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis (used intranasally) and to treat asthma (inhalation and oral administration). Fluticasone furoate (in Flonase® SensimistTM Allergy Relief) is approved as an over-the-counter medication providing non-drowsy, 24-hour relief of both nose- and eye-related allergy symptoms.
Immuno Disease Comments: Glucocorticoid (corticosteroid) drug used to treat asthma.
omalizumab  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used to treat moderate to severe IgE-mediated (i.e. allergy triggered) persistent asthma (US) or severe asthma (EU) [5], in adults and children over 12 years old, inadequately controlled by inhaled corticosteroid treatment. In 2014 the US FDA approved use of this drug for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU, a.k.a. chronic spontaneous urticaria) which is unresponsive to treatment with anti-histamine H1 receptor drugs.
In July 2016, the FDA expanded asthma approval to include children six to 11 years of age, as indicated previously for those 12 years-adult.
Immuno Disease Comments: An anti-IgE therapy approved to treat persistent and severe asthma inadequately controlled by inhaled corticosteroids.
roflumilast  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Roflumilast is used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [20]. The drug reduces and prevents worsening of the lung inflammation that causes COPD.
Phase 1 proof-of-concept trials of topical roflumilast in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis were withdrawn (apparently due to business decisions) before any participants were treated.
Immuno Disease Comments: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor approved to treat asthma.
beclometasone  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used for the prophylaxis of asthma. However, there is no information regarding approval for use of this drug on the US FDA or European Medicines Agency websites, although the compound does have an INN. Other national approval agencies may have granted marketing authorisation.
Immuno Disease Comments: A glucocorticoid (corticosteroid) drug used to treat asthma.
dyphylline  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Dyphylline is used to treat the symptoms of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema.
Immuno Disease Comments: A drug with bronchodilatory and vasodilatory actions that is used to manage asthma.
flunisolide  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Flunisolide use is indicated to prevent asthma attacks and to treat allergic rhinitis.
Immuno Disease Comments: A glucocorticoid (corticosteroid) drug used to treat asthma.
fluticasone propionate  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Fluticasone propionate is used for long-term prevention of bronchospasm in asthmatic patients and also is also contained in creams and nasal sprays to control allergy symptoms. In the US, fluticasone propionate is available over-the-counter, as Flonase Allergy Relief®.
Immuno Disease Comments: For long-term prevention of bronchospasm in asthmatic patients.
isoetarine  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used to treat emphysema, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: A bronchodilator used to manage asthma.
tripelennamine  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used as an antipruritic and antihistamine in the treatment of asthma, hay fever, rhinitus and urticaria. All formulations of this drug appear to have been discontinued by the US FDA, although other national approval agencies may continue to grant marketing authorisation.
Immuno Disease Comments: Antihistamine approved for allergic asthma.
vilanterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Vilanterol is contained in medications alongside a corticosteroid (eg furoate (PubChem CID 9854489 and vilanterol marketed as Breo Ellipta®) or an anticholinergic drug ( and vilanterol marketed as Anoro Ellipta®). Both of these medications were approved by the US FDA in 2013 to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In Europe, the EMA has approved Relvar Ellipta® (fluticasone furoate and vilanterol) for asthma and COPD. In May 2015, the US FDA expanded approval of Breo Ellipta® to include treatment of asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: Used in combination with fluticasone furoate to manage asthma symptoms.
budesonide  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used by inhalation to treat asthma and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EMA approvals (2014) are for products containing budesonide and formoterol. May be used to treat Crohn's disease (inflammatory bowel disease) [26], inflammatory skin disorders, allergic rhinitis and in an extended release formulation, ulcerative colitis [18]. Symbicort® inhalers contain a fixed-dose formualtion of budesonide and the β2-adrenoceptor bronchodilator .
Oral formulations of this drug have EMA orphan disease approval to treat graft-versus-host disease (2006) and eosinophilic oesophagitis (2013).
In October 2014, the US FDA approved a rectal foam formulation containing budesonide (Uceris®) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
Immuno Disease Comments: A glucocorticoid (corticosteroid) drug used to treat asthma.
indacaterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Indacaterol is a very long-acting, rapid onset β2-adrenoceptor agonist [7] approved for the once-daily management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A fixed-dose inhalation combination medicine containing incadaterol and (Utibron Neohaler) was approved by the US FDA in November 2015 for the treatment of COPD
Immuno Disease Comments: A LABA used to treat asthma.
glycopyrrolate  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Approved as an anticholinergic bronchodilator to relieve the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [44] and asthma [19]. This drug may also be used pre-operatively to reduce salivary tracheobronchial and pharyngeal secretions and to reduce the acidity of gastric contents.
An inhalation formuation containing glycopyrrolate and (Utibron Neohaler®) was approved by the US FDA in November 2015 for the treatment of COPD.
In April 2016, the US FDA approved another fixed-dose inhalation aerosol formulation, glycopyrrolate plus the long-acting β agonist (LABA) (Bevespi Aerosphere®) for long-term, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema.
Immuno Disease Comments: An anticholinergic bronchodilator used to treat asthma.
ciclesonide  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Ciclesonide is an inhalation glucocorticoid. It is approved to treat inflammatory/obstructive airway diseases such as persistent asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: A glucocorticoid (corticosteroid) drug used to treat asthma.
arformoterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Arformoterol is indicated for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: A LABA used to treat asthma.
brodalumab  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Brodalumab was first approved in Japan (2016), and by the US FDA for plaque psoriasis the following year. Regulatory decisions are pending elsewhere. Clinical trials for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis (Phase III), moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (Phase III) and asthma (Phase II) are ongoing. Encouraging results from a Phase II study have been reported [30].
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical candidate for asthma.
olodaterol  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Olodaterol was approved by the FDA in July 2014 as an inhalation medication for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Phase II trials have also been conducted in patients with asthma (see NCT01013753).
This drug has been further assessed in clinical trials in combination with the muscarinic antagonist bromide (also a bronchodilator).
In May 2015 the US FDA approved a fixed-dose combination of bromide and olodaterol (Stiolto Respimat®) as 'a long-term, once-daily maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema' Drugs.com.
Click here to view a full list of associated trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov.
Immuno Disease Comments: A LABA used to treat asthma.
dupilumab  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Dupilumab is being clinically assessed as a treatment for atopic allergic conditions, including asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and nasal polyposis. A list of trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov is available here.
Preliminary results from one clinical trial in patients with persistent asthma, reports significant improvements in measures of lung function and asthma control when treated with dupilumab [46].
Results from a Phase II study in patients with nasal polyposis and chronic symptoms of sinusitis (NCT01920893) are reported by Bachert et al. (2016) [2]. Patients in this study were given dupilumab + or mometasone + dupilumab placebo. Dupilumab + mometasone reduced nasal polyp burden and improved symptoms of sinusitis to a greater extent than the mometasone + placebo treatment.
Dupilumab received full FDA approval for moderate-to-severe eczema (atopic dermatitis) in March 2017, and the EMA granted this same approval in August 2017.
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical candidate for asthma (see NCT02134028, Phase 3).
nedocromil  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Used as an inhlation drug to alleviate bronchconstriction in asthma [24], and may be used in eye-drops to treat allergic eye reactions. The use of some formulations of this drug has been discontinued in the US.
Immuno Disease Comments: Inhalation mast cell stabiliser used to treat asthma.
cromoglicic acid  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Cromoglicic acid is available in different formulations; nasal spray is used to treat allergic rhinitis, nebulizer solution to treat asthma, eye drops to treat allergic conjunctivitis and an oral form to treat mastocytosis,dermatographic urticaria and ulcerative colitis.
Recent reports suggest that cromolyn inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3β and may therefore have potential to treat diabetes and obesity [31] and may prove effective in treating insulin-induced lipoatrophy [39].
Immuno Disease Comments: Mast cell stabiliser used to treat asthma.
AZD1981
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate with predicted anti-asthmatic activity (see NCT00758589 for example). Has alos completed Phase 2 clinical trials for COPD (NCT00690482) and chronic idiopathic urticaria (NCT02031679).
lebrikizumab
Clinical Use: This antibody was originally tested as a treatment for refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma but was later repurposed as a potential asthma treatment [9]. The antibody entered Phase 2 trial for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and Phase 3 trial for asthma. Business reports online indicate that Roche have discontinued lebrikizumab development in IPF following mixed results from their trials [1]. Click here to view ClinicalTrails.gov's listing of current lebrikizumab trials.
Immuno Disease Comments: Repurposed clinical candidate for asthma (Phase 3).
mepolizumab  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: In November 2015, the US FDA approved mepolizumab for the treatment of severe asthma exacerbations in patients who are already taking other asthma medications [4,36].
In the United States and the European Union, mepolizumab can be used under orphan drug designation for the treatment of Churg-Strauss syndrome and hypereosinophilic syndrome.
To gain full marketing authorisation, mepolizumab is being evaluated in clinical trials in patients with eosinophilic COPD (Phase III), hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES; Phase III) and for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA or Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Phase III). Click here to view ClinicalTrials.gov's listing of current mepolizumab trials.
Immuno Disease Comments: Approved therapeutic for severe asthma exacerbations.
AZ11657312 (salt free)
Immuno Disease Comments: Experimental compound.
pascolizumab
Clinical Use: Pascolizumab is in phase II clinical trial for asthma (see NCT00024544) and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB; see NCT01638520).
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical candidate therapeutic for asthma (Phase 2 study NCT00024544 completed), but not progressed since 2012.
tralokinumab
Clinical Use: Tralokinumab reached Phase 3 clinical trials for uncontrolled asthma, and atopic dermatitis, and Phase 2 for alopecia areata. Click here to link to ClinicalTrials.gov's listing of Phase III tralokinumab trials. In addition, Phase 2 trials are investigating tralokinumab as a treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, NCT01629667 and NCT02036580). Business reports online indicate that AstraZeneca have discontinued tralokinumab development as it showed no benefit over placebo in their STRATOS 2 and TROPOS late-stage asthma trials [1].
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 3 clinical candidate for uncontrolled asthma (see NCT02161757).
reslizumab  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: A Phase III clinical trial of reslizumab as a treatment for eosinophilic asthma (NCT01287039) has been completed, and results are published in [11].
In March 2016, the US FDA approved reslizumab for use with other asthma medicines for the maintenance treatment of severe asthma in adult patients.
Immuno Disease Comments: Approved therapeutic as maintenance treatment for asthma in combination with other asthma medications.
benralizumab  [  (Drugs.com) ] 12
Clinical Use: In November 2017, the US FDA approved benralizumab as an add-on maintenance treatment for patients with severe eosinophilic phenotype asthma (aged 12 years and older). EMA marketing approval is pending a final decision, with their Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) having recommended marketing authorisation on 9th November 2017 [14]. Results from Phase 3 clinical trial NCT01914757 are published in [15]. Analysis of trial outcomes show that not all asthma patients will respond to benralizumab, but that in patients with high eosinophil counts (> 300 cells per μL) annual exacerbation rates were significantly reduced. These suggest that targeting the biologic to specific patient populations will provide most clinical benefit. Click here to view ClinicalTrials.gov's listing of current benralizumab trials.
Immuno Disease Comments: Approved drug for severe eosinophilic asthma.
amelubant
Clinical Use: Amelubant (BIIL 284) reached Phase 2 clinical trial for inflammatory conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchial asthma and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress in development beyond Phase 2 trial in asthma.
example 131 [WO2009133348]
Immuno Disease Comments: A compound developed with predicted clinical utility in asthma.
navarixin
Clinical Use: Navarixin (SCH-527123) has been evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for immune conditions such as allergen-induced asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psoriasis.
Immuno Disease Comments: Completed Phase 2 clinical trial NCT00632502 for asthma.
dectrekumab
Clinical Use: Dectrekumab (QBX258) reached Phase II clinical trial as a potential biologic therapy for several immune conditions, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis [40] (proof of principle study NCT01022970), Crohn's disease, keloids and allergic rhinitis. As of May 2017, there are no active dectrekumab studies.
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 trial NCT01479595 in asthma has been completed.
tezepelumab
Clinical Use: Tezepelumab is being evaluated in clinical trials as a potential immunomodulatory agent for uncontrolled (especially noneosinophilic type) asthma (Phase 2- results of NCT02054130 published in [10]) and atopic dermatitis (AD; Phase 1). Click here to link to ClinicalTrials.gov's full listing of tezepelumab (research coded AMG 157 or MEDI9929) trials.
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical candidate for asthma (Phase 2).
enokizumab
Clinical Use: Enokizumab has been evaluated in Phase II clinical trials as a potential anti-asthmatic therapy [35,38]. Click here to link to ClinicalTrials.gov's full listing of Phase II enokizumab (research coded MEDI528 or MEDI0528) trials.
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical candidate for asthma (maximum Phase 2).
lenzilumab
Clinical Use: Lenzilumab has completed Phase II clinical trial for uncontrolled asthma, whereas a Phase II study in patients with inadequately controlled rheumatoid arthritis has been terminated. A Phase I trial in patients with previously treated chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is ongoing [37].
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical candidate for asthma (maximum Phase 2).
JNJ-39758979
Clinical Use: Phase 2a clinical trial results in patients with moderate atopic dermatitis are published in [33] which indicate that the study did not meet its primary end-point, and produced drug-induced agranulocytosis, explaining its termination. Phase 2 trial NCT00946569 in asthma patients has been completed.
Immuno Disease Comments: See completed clinical trial NCT00946569
fevipiprant
Clinical Use: Phase III clinical trials evaluating QAW039 in asthma patients (NCT02555683 and NCT02563067) are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov.

Phase II trial results are published in [16] and report that fevipiprant is well tolerated and reduces eosinophilic airway inflammation in patients with persistent moderate-to-severe asthma resistant to inhaled corticosteroid treatment (i.e. patients maintaining raised sputum eosinophil counts whilst using corticosteroids).
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 3 clinical candidate for Asthma.
QAV680
Clinical Use: QAV680 reached Phase II clinical trial in asthma and allergic rhinitis. As of May 2017, there are no active clinical trials evaluating this compound.
Immuno Disease Comments: Completed Phase 2 trial in asthma (see NCT00814216).
ligelizumab
Clinical Use: Several Phase II clinical trials are underway to evaluate the potential of QGE031 as a treatment for asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria [28].
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress in development beyond Phase 2.
mometasone  [  (Drugs.com) ]
Clinical Use: Mometasone is used intranasally in the management of asthma, allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, and topically for allergic skin disorders. Prescribed formulations contain mometasone furoate (PubChem CID 441336).
Immuno Disease Comments: A corticosteroid drug used in the management of asthma, and topically for allergic skin disorders.
PF-04191834
Clinical Use: A Phase II clinical trial evaluating the brochodilatory effect of a single dose of PF-04191834 in patients with asthma has been completed. A Phase II study in osteoarthritis was terminated.
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress beyond Phase 2 trial.
GSK583
Immuno Disease Comments: Experimental compound with predicted application in asthma.
toreforant
Clinical Use: Toreforant failed to show clinical efficacy in a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis [41]. Phase 2 studies NCT01823016 and NCT02295865 in patients with uncontrolled, persistent asthma and moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis respectively have been completed.
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress beyond Phase 2 trial.
timapiprant
Clinical Use: OC000459 is being evaluated in several Phase 2 clinical trials in various inflammatory and allergic conditions including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Click here to link to a list of Phase 2 OC000459 trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov.
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for asthma, including refractory eosinophilic asthma.
AZD7594
Clinical Use: AZD7594 has completed Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with mild to moderate asthma, in which it demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy (see NCT02479412).
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress beyond Phase 2 trial.
abediterol
Clinical Use: Phase 2a first-in-patient clinical trial results are published in [3]. The agent was generally well tolerated, producing a safe, potent, rapid and long-acting bronchodilatory effect in patients with persistent mild-to-moderate asthma.
Immuno Disease Comments: No progress beyond Phase 2 trial.
CDP840
Immuno Disease Comments: An experimental selective PDE4 inhibitor, developed for anti-inflammatory activity.
nemiralisib
Clinical Use: Nemiralisib (as GSK2269557) is in Phase 2 clinical development. Two separate studies are underway in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; NCT02522299) or the rare genetic condition activated PI3K-delta syndrome (APDS/PASLI; NCT02593539).
Immuno Disease Comments: Completed Phase 1 trial in asthma (see NCT01462617).
example 36 [WO2016177845] 22
Immuno Disease Comments: A novel LTC4S inhibitor with potential anti-inflammatory effects in respiratory conditions such as asthma.
IgE heavy chain
Immuno Disease Comments: Target of approved anti-asthmatic biological omalizumab.
ABT-737 42
Clinical Use: ABT-737 has been assessed in a Phase II clinical trial investigating its effects on ex vivo ovarian cancer samples from patients [21,25,47].
Immuno Disease Comments: ABT-737 has been shown to induce apoptosis of airway inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2, Th17 and dendritic cells) suggesting a potiential role in management of eosinophilic or corticosteroid resistant-neutrophilic airway inflammation.

References

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