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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY complete ligand list

Low molecular weight, non-peptidic, biogenic compounds produced by life processes (normally endogenous and of animal origin, including hormones and neurotransmitters) and their close analogues.
Ligand name ID Synonyms
A Back to top
acetaldehyde PDB Ligand 6277 acetic aldehyde, ethanal, ethyl aldehyde, NSC 7594
acetic acid PDB Ligand 1058 acetate, ethanoic acid
acetoacetyl CoA PDB Ligand 3039 3-acetoacetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl coenzyme A, acetoacetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-coenzyme a
acetylcholine PDB Ligand 294 ACh, E1001, O-acetylcholine
acetyl CoA PDB Ligand 3038 acetyl coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA, acetylCoA, S-acetyl coenzyme A
acetyl-L-carnitine 4520 (-)-Acetylcarnitine, ALCAR, L-Acetylcarnitine, Levocarnitine acetyl, O-Acetyl-L-carnitine
adenine PDB Ligand 4788
adenosine Approved drug PDB Ligand 2844 Adenocard®, Adenoscan®
adenosine-3'-5'-bisphosphate PDB Ligand 1718 adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate, adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate
adenosine 5'-monophosphate PDB Ligand 2455 AMP, 5'-AMP, adenosine monophosphate
ADP PDB Ligand 1712 adenosine diphosphate
ADP ribose 2444
(+)-adrenaline PDB Ligand 4450 (S)-(+)-adrenaline, (S)-adrenaline
(-)-adrenaline Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 479 adrenalin, Auvi-Q®, Epipen®, l-adrenaline, L-epinephrine, levoepinephrine
(±)-adrenaline 509 adrenaline, epinephrine
agmatine PDB Ligand 4127
β-alanine PDB Ligand 2365
aldosterone PDB Ligand 2872
alitretinoin Approved drug PDB Ligand 2645 9-cis-retinoic acid, Panretin®, Toctino®
all-trans-retinal PDB Ligand 2350 all-trans-retinal, retinaldehyde
4-aminobutanal 6606
aminoguanidine PDB Ligand 5135 amino guanidine, pimagedine
aminohippuric acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 4810 PAH, Aminohippurate Sodium®, p-aminohippurate, p-aminohippuric acid, PAH
5-aminolevulinic acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 4784 5-aminolevulinate, Ameluz®, D-aminolevulinic acid, Gliolan®, Levulan®
(S)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate PDB Ligand 6610
aminooxyacetic acid PDB Ligand 5136 AOA, AOAA, carboxymethoxylamine
anandamide PDB Ligand 2364 AEA, arachidonoyl ethanolamide, N-arachidonoylethanolamine
androstenedione PDB Ligand 2860 androst-4-ene-3,17-dione
androstenol PDB Ligand 2761 androst-16-en-3-ol
Ap4A 1732 5',5'''-diadenosine tetraphosphate, adenosyl-P4, Ap4A, diadenosine tetraphosphate
A2P5P PDB Ligand 1717 2,5-ADP, adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate, adenosine-2'-5'-diphosphate
A3P5PS PDB Ligand 1719 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, adenosine-3'-phosphate-5' -phosphosulfate, phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS)
arachidonic acid PDB Ligand 2391 C20:4
2-arachidonoylglycerol PDB Ligand 729 2-AG, 2-Ara-Gl, 2-arachidonyl-glycerol, 2AG
2-arachidonoylglycerolphosphoinositol 4029 2-AGPI, 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol-phosphoinositol, arachidonoyl LPI
2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether PDB Ligand 5545 2-AG ether, 2-arachidonylglyceryl ether, HU 310, Noladin ether
arcaine PDB Ligand 4137
aspirin triggered lipoxin A4 3933 aspirin triggered 15-epi lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4, ATL
aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 Immunopharmacology Ligand 6239 AT-Resolvin D1, AT-RvD1
ATP PDB Ligand 1713 5'-ATP, adenosine 5' triphosphate, adenosine triphosphate
[35S]ATPαS Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive 3407 [35S]-ATPαS
B Back to top
betaine 4550 glycine betaine, N,N,N-trimethylammonioacetate, trimethylglycine
betamethasone Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7061 SCH-4831
bilirubin PDB Ligand 4577
biliverdin 5153
biotin PDB Ligand 4787
butyric acid PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 1059 butanoic acid, butyrate, C4
C Back to top
cADPR 2445 cyclic ADP ribose
calcifediol Approved drug PDB Ligand 6921 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, calcidiol, Calderol, Ryaldee®, U-32070E
calcitriol-26,23-lactone 2786 (23S,25R)-1α,25-(OH)2D3-26,23-lactone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone, 1,25-lactone
carnosine PDB Ligand 4559 β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-carnosine
2'3'-cGAMP PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 9207 cyclic [G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], cyclic GMP-AMP, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate
chenodeoxycholic acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 608 CDCA, Chenix®, chenodeoxycholate, Chenodiol®, Leadiant® (formerly Chenodeoxycholic acid sigma-tau)
5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol 2803
cholesten 2802 alpha-cholestane, cholestan, cholestane
cholesterol PDB Ligand 2718 cholest-5-en-3β-ol
cholesterol sulphate PDB Ligand 2738 cholesteryl sulfate
cholic acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 609 CA, cholate, Cholbam®, Kolbam®, Orphacol&Reg;
choline PDB Ligand 4551
11-cis-retinal 6669 11-cis-retinal, 11-cis-retinaldehyde, retinaldehyde
13-cis-retinal 6671 13-cis-retinal, 13-cis-retinaldehyde
9-cis-retinal 6673 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-retinaldehyde
11-cis-retinol 6670 11-cis-retinol
13-cis-retinol 6672 13-cis-retinol, neovitamin A
citric acid PDB Ligand 2478 citrate
CMP-sialic acid PDB Ligand 4663
coenzyme A PDB Ligand 3044 co-enzyme-A, CoA
colfosceril palmitate Approved drug 2799 DPPC, Exosurf Neonatal®
corticosterone PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 2869
cortisol Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 2868 Acticort®, Efmody®, Plenadren®
cortisone PDB Ligand 5171 11-dehydro-17-hydroxycorticosterone, 17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone
creatine PDB Ligand 4496
CTP PDB Ligand 1741 cytidine triphosphate
cyclic AMP PDB Ligand 2352 cAMP, 3' 5'-adenosine monophosphate, 3',5'-cyclic AMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate
cyclic GMP PDB Ligand 2347 cGMP, 3',5'-cyclic GMP, 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate
cystathionine 5173 L-cystathionine
cytidine PDB Ligand 4728
cytosine PDB Ligand 8490
D Back to top
D-alanine PDB Ligand 4678 D-Ala
5'-dAMP PDB Ligand 5120 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate, dAMP
D-arginine 4680
D-ascorbic acid 4651
D-aspartic acid PDB Ligand 6511 D-aspartate
dATP PDB Ligand 1760 deoxyadenosine triphosphate
D-chiro-inositol PDB Ligand 4645 DCI
D-citrulline 4683
D-cysteine PDB Ligand 4537 D-Cys
2',3'-ddATP PDB Ligand 1709
decanoic acid PDB Ligand 5532 capric acid, decoic acid
dehydroascorbic acid PDB Ligand 4733 dehydroascorbate
dehydroepiandrosterone Approved drug PDB Ligand 2370 DHEA, androstenolone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, DHA, Intrarosa®, Prasterone
dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate 4528 DHEAS, CCG-204473
11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 4484 11-dehydro-TXB2
2'-deoxyadenosine PDB Ligand 5109
deoxycholic acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 610 DCA, ATX-101, deoxycholate
deoxycorticosterone PDB Ligand 2871 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-hydroxyprogesterone
11-deoxycortisol 5100 11-deoxycortisone, cortexolone, cortodoxone
deoxycortisone 3450 21-deoxycortisone
2'-deoxyinosine PDB Ligand 5110
15-deoxy-LXA4 3402
15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGD2 1904 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin D2, 15d-Δ12,14-PGD2
11-deoxy-PGE1 1925 11-deoxy-PGE1, 11-deoxyprostaglandin E1, doproston
15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 2692
desmosterol PDB Ligand 2748
desoximetasone Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7067 A-41-304, HOE-304, R-2113, Topicort®
D-fructose PDB Ligand 4654
D-fucose 4722
D-galactose PDB Ligand 4646
D-glucosamine PDB Ligand 4535
D-glucose 4536
D-glutamic acid PDB Ligand 4708 D-Glu, D-glutamate
5'-dGMP PDB Ligand 5122
D-histidine 4679
β-D-hydroxybutyric acid PDB Ligand 1593 (R)-3-hydroxybutanoate, 3-hydroxybutyrate
diadenosine diphosphate 1065 diadenosine pyrophosphate, diadenosine-5',5'-pyrophosphate
2',5'-dideoxyadenosine 5108
13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF 1901 Dhk-pgf2alpha
13,14-dihydro-PGE1 1946 13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin E1
dihydrosphingosine 2453 dihydro-D-erythrosphingosine, sphinganine
dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate 2921 dihydroS1P, sphinganine 1-phosphate, sphinganine-phosphate
dihydrotestosterone PDB Ligand 2856 DHT, 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, androstanolone, stanolone
7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol PDB Ligand 4350 7α-25-OHC
7α,27-dihydroxycholesterol 4353 7α, 27-OHC
7β, 25-dihydroxycholesterol 4355
7β, 27-dihydroxycholesterol 4354 7β,26-dihydroxycholesterol
3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid 6633 DHMA, DOMA
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde 6632 DOPAL
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Approved drug PDB Ligand 2779 Calcijex®, calcitriol, Rocaltrol®
dimethylallyl diphosphate 3049 delta-prenyl diphosphate, di-CH3-allyl-Ppi, dimethylallyl-PP, dimethylallylpyrophosphate, prenyl diphosphate trianion
dimethylamine PDB Ligand 5177
dimethylethylamine 5523
dioleoylphosphatidic acid 5512 dioleoyl phosphatidic acid, doPA
(R)-5-diphosphomevalonate PDB Ligand 3047 mevalonate 5-diphosphate
D-lactic acid PDB Ligand 2934 D-lactate, R-lactic acid
D-lysine PDB Ligand 4681
D-mannose 4650
docosahexaenoic acid PDB Ligand 1051 DHA, all-cis-DHA, all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid, doconexent, Omega 3 fatty acid, Omega-3 marine triglycerides, Retriacyl® (proposed trade name)
DOG 2435 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol
dolichol phosphate 3214 DP
dopamine Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 940 3-hydroxytyramine
D-ornithine PDB Ligand 4682
doxercalciferol Approved drug PDB Ligand 2790 1α-hydroxyvitamin D2, 1αOHD2 , 1-α-hydroxyergocalciferol
D-phenylalanine PDB Ligand 5797 D-(+)-phenylalanine
D-proline PDB Ligand 4676 D-Pro
D-serine PDB Ligand 4171
D-xylose PDB Ligand 4724
dyphylline Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7070 Dilor®
E Back to top
eicosatetranoic acid PDB Ligand 2669 ETYA
eltanolone PDB Ligand 11534 3α,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone, 3α,5β-THP, 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, Pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one, pregnanolone
EPA PDB Ligand 3362 C20:5n-3,6,9,12,15, eicosapentaenoic acid, icosapentaenoic acid
12-epi LTB4 6160 12(S)-Leukotriene B4
epipregnanolone sulphate 4188 epipregnanolone sulfate
24(S), 25-epoxycholesterol PDB Ligand 2751 24,25-epoxy-cholesterol
5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid 6304 5,6-EET, (±)5,6-EpETrE, (±)5,6-epoxy-8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid
(S)-2,3-epoxysqualene PDB Ligand 6551 (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene, squalene 2,3-epoxide
17α-estradiol 12600 17α-E2, 17-alpha-Estradiol, 17-epi-Estradiol, 17a-estradiol, Alfatradiol®
17β-estradiol Approved drug PDB Ligand 1013 E2, estrogen, oestrodiol, oestrogen
estriol Approved drug PDB Ligand 2821 Trimesta®
estrone Approved drug PDB Ligand 2818 Aquest®, Kestrone®, oestrone
estrone-3-sulphate Approved drug 4749 estrone hydrogen sulfate, estrone hydrogen sulphate, estrone-3-sulfate, Ogen®
ethanol PDB Ligand 2299
ethinylestradiol Approved drug PDB Ligand 7071 17α-ethynylestradiol, ethinyl estradiol
ethynodiol diacetate Approved drug 7072 Continuin®, Femulen®, SC-11800
F Back to top
farnesyl diphosphate 2910 FDP, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP)
farnesyl monophosphate PDB Ligand 2911 FMP
flavin adenine dinucleotide PDB Ligand 5184 FAD
flavin mononucleotide PDB Ligand 5185 FMN, riboflavin 5'-monophosphate, riboflavin 5'-phosphate
folic acid PDB Ligand 4563 folate
G Back to top
GABA PDB Ligand 1067 γ-amino butyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid
GDP-fucose 4578 GDP-L-fucose, guanosine diphosphate fucose
geranyl diphosphate PDB Ligand 3051 geranyl pyrophosphate, GPP, neryl pyrophosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate PDB Ligand 3052 all-trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate, all-trans-geranylgeranyl-PP, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl-PP, GGPP
glucose 6-phosphate 4647
glucuronic acid PDB Ligand 4723 glucuronate
glycerol PDB Ligand 5195
glycerol 3-phosphate 4740
glycine PDB Ligand 727
glycochenodeoxycholic acid PDB Ligand 4545 GCDA, glycochenodeoxycholate
glycocholic acid PDB Ligand 4544 GCA, cholylglycine, glycocholate
glycodeoxycholic acid 4714 GDCA, glycodeoxycholate
glycoursodeoxycholic acid 4715 GUDCA, glycoursodeoxycholate
5'-GMP PDB Ligand 5123 GMP, guanosine 5'-monophosphate, guanosine monophosphate
guanidine Approved drug PDB Ligand 4783
guanidoacetic acid PDB Ligand 5325 glycocyamine, guanidineacetic acid, guanidinoacetate
guanine PDB Ligand 4556
guanosine PDB Ligand 4567
guanosine 5'-diphosphate PDB Ligand 2410 GDP, guanosine diphosphate
guanosine-5'-triphosphate PDB Ligand 1742 GTP, guanosine triphosphate
H Back to top
heme 4349 ferroheme, haem
heparin Approved drug 4214 HepFlush®
hepoxilin A3 6305 HXA3
16-HETE 6923
18-HETE 6924
20-HETE 4103 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
histamine PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 1204
hyaluronan 4954 HA, hyaluronate, hyaluronic acid
γ-hydroxybutyrate Approved drug 4711 GHB, γ-hydroxybutyric acid, Alcover®, WY-3478, Xyrem®
2-hydroxy capric acid 5847 2-hydroxy-decanoic acid, 2-OH-C10
3-hydroxy capric acid 5848 3-hydroxy-decanoic acid, 3-OH-C10
24(S)-hydroxycholesterol 2750 24s-OHC, 24S-Hydroxycholesterol, cerebrosterol, cholest-5-ene-3,24-diol
25-hydroxycholesterol PDB Ligand 2885 25-OHC
27-hydroxycholesterol 2752 26-hydroxycholesterol, 27-OHC
7α-hydroxycholesterol PDB Ligand 4351 7-α-OHC
7β-hydroxycholesterol PDB Ligand 4352 7-β-OHC
7-hydroxycholesterol 3432 7-OHC
12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid 6159 12-HHT, 12S-HHTrE
5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde 6634 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetaldehyde, 5-hydroxyindolylacetaldehyde
12-hydroxylauric acid PDB Ligand 6922
2-hydroxylauric acid 5849 2-hydroxy lauric acid, 2-OH-C12
3-hydroxylauric acid 5850 3-hydroxy lauric acid
20-hydroxy-LTB4 3399
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan PDB Ligand 4671 5-hydroxytryptophan
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA 3040 HMG-CoA, 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA , 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A, HMG-CoA, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA
4-hydroxynonenal 6274 4-HNE, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, HNE
9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid PDB Ligand 5567 9-HODE, 9(S)-HODE, 9(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid
2-hydroxyoctanoic acid 5796
3-hydroxyoctanoic acid PDB Ligand 2933 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-OH-octanoic acid
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid PDB Ligand 6629 4-HPPA, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate
17α-hydroxypregnenolone PDB Ligand 5103 17α hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-OH-pregnenolone
17α-hydroxyprogesterone PDB Ligand 5104 17α hydroxyprogesterone, 17-OH progesterone, 17OHP
9-hydroxystearic acid PDB Ligand 13240 9-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid, 9-Hydroxyoctadecanoic acid
5-hydroxytryptamine PDB Ligand 5 5-HT, serotonin
hypoxanthine PDB Ligand 4555
I Back to top
indole-3-propionic acid PDB Ligand 4709 IPA, 3-indolepropionicacid, oxigon
inosine PDB Ligand 4554
5'-inosine monophosphate PDB Ligand 5124 5'-IMP, IMP, inosine 5'-monophosphate, inosinic acid
inositol 1-phosphate 5203 1D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate
inositol 3-phosphate 5204 1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
inositol 4-phosphate PDB Ligand 5205 1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate
inositol 2,4,5-trisphosphate 4223 Ins(2,4,5)P3
Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 PDB Ligand 4224 1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate
3-iodothyronamine 2145 T1AM
1,4,-IP2 5098 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, inositol 1,4-bis(phosphate)
1,5,-IP2 5099
4,5,-IP2 PDB Ligand 5119 1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate
IP3 PDB Ligand 4222 1,4,5-IP3, 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, Ins(1,4,5)P3
IP4 PDB Ligand 5202 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate
isoamylamine PDB Ligand 5506
isobutyric acid PDB Ligand 1060 isobutyrate
isopentenyl diphosphate PDB Ligand 3048 IPP, IPPP, isopentenyl pyrophosphate
ITP PDB Ligand 1743 inosine triphosphate
K Back to top
α-ketoglutaric acid PDB Ligand 3636 α-ketoglutarate, 2-ketoglutarate, 2-ketoglutaric acid, 2-oxoglutarate, oxoglutarate
3-keto-lithocholic acid PDB Ligand 2766 3-keto-LCA, dehydrolithocholic acid
3-ketosphinganine PDB Ligand 6654 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine, 3-dehydrosphinganine, 3-ketodihydrosphingosine, ketodihydrosphingosine
kynurenic acid PDB Ligand 2918 KYNA, transtorine
L Back to top
L-alanine PDB Ligand 720 L-Ala
lanosterol PDB Ligand 2746 (3β)-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-ol, (3β,20R)-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-ol, lanosterin
L-arginine 721 L-Arg
L-argininosuccinic acid 5324 L-arginosuccinate, L-arginosuccinic acid
L-ascorbic acid PDB Ligand 4781 vitamin C
L-asparagine PDB Ligand 4533 L-Asn
L-aspartic acid PDB Ligand 3309 L-Asp, L-aspartate
lauric acid PDB Ligand 5534 dodecoic acid, dodecylic acid, duodecyclic acid, n-dodecanoic acid, vulvic acid
L-carnitine 4780
L-citrulline PDB Ligand 722
L-cysteate 5329 cysteate
L-cysteine PDB Ligand 4782 L-Cys
L-cystine PDB Ligand 5413 (-)-cystine, cystine, L-dicysteine
levodopa Approved drug PDB Ligand 3639 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, Inbrija® (levodopa inhalation powder), L-DOPA, Sinemet®
L-fucose 4721
L-glucose 4719
L-glutamic acid PDB Ligand 1369 L-Glu, L-glutamate, poly-L-glutamate
L-glutamine PDB Ligand 723
L-histidine 3310 L-His
L-homocysteine PDB Ligand 5198 homocysteine
β-L-hydroxybutyric acid PDB Ligand 4699 β-L-hydroxybutyrate
linoleic acid PDB Ligand 1052 C18:2, linoleate, linolic acid, telfairic acid
α-linolenic acid PDB Ligand 1049 α-LA, C18:3, linolenate
γ-linolenic acid 4710 GLA, C18:3,n-6, gamma-linolenic acid
lipoic acid PDB Ligand 4822 α-lipoic acid, lipoate, tioctic acid
L-isoleucine PDB Ligand 3311 L-Ile
lithocholic acid PDB Ligand 611 LCA, lithocholate
L-lactic acid PDB Ligand 2932 (S)-lactate, (S)-lactic acid, L-lactate, lactate
L-leucine PDB Ligand 3312 L-Leu
L-lysine 724 L-Lys
L-methionine PDB Ligand 4814 L-Met
L-ornithine PDB Ligand 725
loteprednol etabonate Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7085 HGP-1, Inveltys®, Lotemax®, P-5604
LPA 2906 1-oleoyl-LPA, lysophosphatidic acid
[3H]LPA Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive