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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY complete ligand list

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Non-peptidic, biogenic compounds derived from living organisms and their close synthetic derivatives.

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Ligand name ID Synonyms
A Back to top
abscisic acid Immunopharmacology Ligand 10362 (+/-)-(cis,trans)-abscisic acid, (+/-)-Abscisic acid, (RS)-Abscisic acid, ABA
aconitine 2617
agatoxin 489 2484 AG 489
ajmalicine Approved drug PDB Ligand 8746 delta-yohimbine, raubasine, rauvasan, rauwolfia alkaloid
alcuronium 341
allicin 2419
Altromycin B 10964
anacardic acid 6999
apicidin 7495 OSI-2040
apigenin PDB Ligand 4136
arbekacin PDB Ligand 7345 arbekacin sulfate, ME1100, NPC-14
arecoline 296 methylarecaiden, methylarecaidin, taeniolin
argiotoxin PDB Ligand 4138 argiotoxin 636
artemether Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 9955 β-artemether, beta-artemether
artemisinin Antimalarial Ligand 9954 qinghaosu
artemotil Antimalarial Ligand 9958 β-arteether
artenimol Approved drug Antimalarial Ligand 9957 DHA, dihydroartemisinin, GNF-Pf-5634
artepillin C 6302
atropine Approved drug 320 Atropen®, hyoscyamine
azalanstat 8799 compound 1 [PMID: 8340925], RS-21607197
 
B Back to top
baicalein PDB Ligand 5144 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone
balanol PDB Ligand 8142 azepinostatin
batrachotoxin 2619
benzoate 4565 benzoic acid
berberine PDB Ligand 11353 umbellatine
betaine 4550 glycine betaine, N,N,N-trimethylammonioacetate, trimethylglycine
betulinic acid 3945
bicuculline PDB Ligand 2312 bicuculline methiodide
bilobalide 2366
biochanin A PDB Ligand 2829 4'-methylgenistein
Bis1 9572 Tz‐BBA
bisandrographolide 2502
bongkrek acid PDB Ligand 4689 BKA, bongkrekic acid, flavotoxin A
borneol 6413 (+)-borneol, isoborneol
borrelidin Antimalarial Ligand 11306 (-)-borrelidin
brucine 342 10,11-dimethoxy strychnine
budesonide Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7434 Entocort®, Jorveza®, Pulmicort®, S-1320, Uceris®
buprenorphine Approved drug 1670 Buprenex®, Buvidal®, CAM2038, Sixmo® (buprenorphine hydrochloride), Subutex®, Temgesic®
 
C Back to top
cabergoline Approved drug 37 Cabaser®, Caberlin®
caffeic acid PDB Ligand 5155
caffeine Approved drug PDB Ligand 407 Peyona®
calphostin C 5156
camphor 2422 2-bornanone, 2-camphanone, bornan-2-one
cannabichromene 11093 (+/-)-Cannabichromene, cannabichrome, CBC
cannabidiol Approved drug PDB Ligand 4150 CBD, Epidiolex®, GWP42003-P, nabiximols (CBD + THC, fixed-doseoral spray), Sativex® (CBD + THC, fixed-doseoral spray)
cannabidivarin 11092 CBDV, GWP42006
cannabigerol 11094 CBG
capsaicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 2486 Qutenza®
carboxyatractyloside PDB Ligand 4572 CATR
carvacrol 2497
carveol 6417 L-carveol
cationomycin 11002 BRN-6263205, BRN6263205, LS-52659, LS52659
celastrol Immunopharmacology Ligand 10386
chaetocin 8388
chalcomycin 11058
chelerythrine PDB Ligand 5953 broussonpapyrine, cheleritrine, chelerythrine hydroxide, toddalin
chlorocardicin 11044
chrysin PDB Ligand 8789 NSC-407436
citibrasine 8561 compound 7 [PMID: 21277783]
citral PDB Ligand 6327 citral a, geranial, geranialdehyde, trans-citral
Citrusinine II 11377 Citrusinine-II, compound 5 [PMID: 21277783]
CJ-15,801 Antimalarial Ligand 10610 CJ-15801
cladosporin PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 10247 asperentin
7α-Cl-ginkgolide B 1840 7α-Cl-GB
cocaine Approved drug PDB Ligand 2286
codeine Approved drug 1673 Codicept®, methylmorphine
colistin Approved drug 10794 Colobreathe®, polymyxin E, Promixin®
compound 5 [PMID: 10869194] 8843
conessine 8981
Corallopyronin A 11029 CorA, LS-54950, LS54950
correolide 2555
cortistatin A PDB Ligand 9885 (+)-cortistatin A, 17-epi-cortistatin A
corynanthine 5345 rauhimbine
crofelemer Approved drug 7453 Fulyzaq®, SP-303
curcumin PDB Ligand 7000
cyclopamine PDB Ligand 10328 11-Deoxyjervine
cyclopiazonic acid 5350 α-cyclopiazonic acid, NSC 117181
cyclothialidine 10988 Ro 09-1437
cytisine PDB Ligand 5347 cytisin
cytochalasin B PDB Ligand 5334 phomin
 
D Back to top
dactimicin 11001 Formimidoyl-fortimicin A, SF-2052, SF2052
dalteparin Approved drug 6803 dalteparin sodium, Fragmin®
danaparoid Approved drug 6804 ORG-10172, Orgaran®
daunorubicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7063 Cerubidine®, daunomycin, FI-6339, NDC-0082-4155, RP-13057
defibrotide Approved drug 9087 Defitelio®
defoslimod Immunopharmacology Ligand 9024 OM 174, OM-174
1-deoxynojirimycin PDB Ligand 4642 AT-2220, duvoglustat, S-GI
deserpidine Approved drug 7064 Harmonyl®, recanescin
desonide Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7066 D-2083, Desowen®
1,9-dideoxyforskolin 4100
difficidin 11062
difluprednate Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7474 DFBA, Durezol®, W-6309
digoxin Approved drug PDB Ligand 4726 Lanoxin®
[3H]digoxin Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive PDB Ligand 4725 [3H]-digoxin
dihydrocodeine Approved drug 7594 DF-118, Dicogesic®, dihydrocodeine bitartrate, Drocode, Paracodeine®
dihydroergocristine 278
domoic acid PDB Ligand 4181 domoate, NSC 288031
doxorubicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7069 Adriamycin®, Caelyx® (liposomal doxorubicin), Doxil®, doxorubicin hydrochloride
dutasteride Approved drug 7457 Avodart®, GG-745, GI-198745
dysiherbaine PDB Ligand 4185
 
E Back to top
Embelin PDB Ligand 11209
emetine 11087
empagliflozin Approved drug 4754 BI 10773, Jardiance®
epibatidine 5348 (+)-epibatidine, CMI 488
[125I]epibatidine Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive 3976
[3H]epibatidine Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive 3977
epigallocatechin-3-gallate PDB Ligand 7002 EGCG, EGCG, epigallocatechin gallate
7-epi-ginkgolide C 1848 7-epi-GC
eremomycin 10959 A82846A
α-ergocryptine 271
erythromycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 1456 EM-A, E-Mycin®, Erythrocin®, erythromycin-A
esculetin 5180 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, aesculetin, cichorigenin
eucalyptol 2464
eugenol PDB Ligand 2425
 
F Back to top
farnesol 3215 FCI 119a
fascaplysin 5969
feldamycin 10979 BMY-28565, BMY28565, U-48266
Ferrimycin A1 10966
7α-F-ginkgolide B 1841 7α-F-GB
ficellomycin 10965 U-47,929, U-47929, U47929
fisetin PDB Ligand 5182
flagellin 4931
flavone PDB Ligand 409
formate 4540 formic acid, HCOO-
forskolin PDB Ligand 5190 coleonol
forsythoside B Immunopharmacology Ligand 10303
fosmidomycin PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 9739 FR-31564
FR-49175 3150 AC1L4YI4, bis(methylthio)gliotoxin, dimethylgliotoxin, FR 49175
 
G Back to top
galangin 410 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, 3,5,7-triOH-flavone, norizalpinin, NSC-407229
garcinoic acid 10734 tocotrienoloic acid, trans-delta-tocotrienoloic acid
garcinol 7001
geraniol PDB Ligand 2467
gingerol 2428 6-Gingerol, [6]-Gingerol
ginkgolide A 1861
ginkgolide B 1862 GKB, BN 52021
ginkgolide C 1863 BN 52022
ginkgolide J 1864
ginsenoside Rg3 7658 (20S)-ginsenoside Rg3
gluconate 4519
glycyrrhizin 4688
gossypol 4204
grassystatin A 8674
grayanotoxin III 2628
grifolic acid 5588 ilicicolinic acid B
grifolic acid methyl ether 5589
guggulsterone 2745 E-guggulsterone, guggulsterones E, pregna-4,17-diene-3,16-dione
guvacine 4691
 
H Back to top
harmine PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 9352
hedamycin 10958 antibiotic B 26,158, B26158, NSC-70929
herbimycin A 5984
hesperetin PDB Ligand 10953 3',5,7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone, NP-13, NSC-57654
himbacine 324
HS-142-1 4952 HS142-1
hydrocodone Approved drug 7081 Zohydro®
hydromorphone Approved drug 7082 Dilaudid®, hydromorphone hydrochloride, Palladone®
ω-Hydroxyemodin 11005 Citreorosein, omega-Hydroxyemodin
5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural PDB Ligand 10939 5HMF
hyperforin 2764
hypericin 11248
hypoglaucin A 842 (-)-hypoglaucine A
 
I Back to top
ibotenic acid 1371 ibotenate
icariside II 10686 baohuoside I
idarubicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7083 Idamycin®, IMI-30, Zavedos®
indanomycin 10949 X-14547A
indole-3-propionic acid PDB Ligand 4709 IPA, 3-indolepropionicacid, oxigon
inecalcitol 7747 TX522
ingenol mebutate Approved drug 7443 PEP-005, Picato®
5'-iodoresiniferatoxin 4109 I-RTX
isosakuranetin 10299 4'-Methylnaringenin, naringenin 4'-methyl ether
 
J Back to top
joro toxin 4229
 
K Back to top
K-252a 336 K252a, ST50826373, staurosporine aglycone
kaempferol PDB Ligand 11052 Robigenin
kainate 4231
[3H]kainate Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive 4085
kallstroemin D 843
Katanosin B 10970 Lysobactin
kibdelomycin A 11016
kuwanon H 622 kuwanone H
 
L Back to top
lactivicin 11022 compound 1 [PMID: 17676039], LTV
L-azetidine-2-carboxylate PDB Ligand 4686
leinamycin 11041 DC-107, DC107
liquiritigenin Immunopharmacology Ligand 8899
lisuride Approved drug PDB Ligand 43 (+)-lisuride, Dopergin®, lysuride
lovastatin Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 2739 (+)-mevinolin, 6α-methylcompactin, Mevacor®
LPS 5019 lipopolysaccharide derived from Gram-negative bacteria
luminamicin 11053 coloradocin, LS-90907
luteolin PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 5215
lysergic acid 139 (+)-lysergic acid, D-lysergic acid, isolysergic acid
lysinomicin 10969
 
M Back to top
mersacidin 11014 M87 1551, M87-1551
6-methoxysakuranetin 9111 compound 33 [PMID: 21650152]
methyllycaconitine PDB Ligand 4005
[3H]methyllycaconitine Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive PDB Ligand 3980
microcystin-LR 4735 toxin-LR
mithramycin Approved drug 8394 aureolic acid, Mithracin®, mithramycin A, MMA
mitomycin C Approved drug 7089 Mitosol®, NSC-26980
2-monoacylglycerol 8800 1-alkyl-2-acylglycerol, 2-acylglycerol, 2-monoglyceride, monoglyceride
morin PDB Ligand 411 aurantica, calico yellow, toxylon pomiferum
morphine Approved drug PDB Ligand 1627 morphine sulfate, Ms Contin®, Oramorph®
muramyl dipeptide PDB Ligand 5024 MDP
muscarine 3996
muscimol 4259 agarin, pantherine
[3H]muscimol Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive 4090
mycophenolic acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 6832 ERL-080, Myfortic® (mycophenolate sodium)
 
N Back to top
napsamycin C 11008
napsamycin D 11009
naringenin 10298 BE-14348A, naringetol
naringin 4738
N-benzyl brucine 332 BNO
N-chloromethyl-brucine 344 CMB, N-chloromethylbrucine
neomycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 709 Neo-Rx®, neomycin sulfate
neopyrrolomycin 10962
7α-N3-ginkgolide B 1842 7α-N3-GB
7α-NHEt-ginkgolide B 1844 7α-NHEt-GB
7α-NH2-ginkgolide B 1843 7α-NH2-GB
7α-NHMe-ginkgolide B 1845 7α-NHMe-GB
nodusmicin 11019 nodusmicin 1
nojirimycin 10951 5-amino-5-deoxy-D-glucopyranose, D-gluco-piperidinose
nordihydroguiaretic acid Approved drug 4265 NDGA, Actinex®
noscapine 10212
 
O Back to top
7α-OAc-ginkgolide B 1846 7α-OAc-GB
10-OBn-epi-ginkgolide C 1838 10-OBn-epi-GC
10-OBn-7α-F-gingkolide B 1835 10-OBn-7α-F-GB, compound 17 [PMID: 12570381]
10-OBn-ginkgolide B 1836 10-OBn-GB
10-OBn-ginkgolide C 1837 10-OBn-GC
ochratoxin A 4672
7α-OCOCH2Ph-ginkgolide B 1847 7α-OCOCH2Ph-GB
okadaic acid PDB Ligand 5349
oleanolic acid 3306
oleocanthal 6308 (-)-oleocanthal
oleuropein 11027
omacetaxine mepesuccinate Approved drug PDB Ligand 7454 CGX-635, HHT, homoharringtonine, Myelostat®, Synribo®
osthole PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 10302 7-Methoxy-8-isopentenylcoumarin, osthol
ouabain Approved drug PDB Ligand 4826
oxycodone Approved drug 7093 oxycodone hydrochloride, Roxicodone®
oxymorphone Approved drug 7094 Opana®, oxymorphone hydrochloride
 
P Back to top
paclitaxel Approved drug PDB Ligand 2770 7-epipaclitaxel, Abraxane® (albumin-bound suspension), Taxol®
parawixin 1 5352 PbTx1
peptidoglycan 5044 PGN, murein
pergolide Approved drug 48 LY-127809, Permax®
PGE1 Approved drug PDB Ligand 1882 Alprostadil®, MR-256, prostaglandin E1
phalloidin 4736
phenoxymethylpenicillin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10920 Oracillin®, PC Pen VK®, Pen-V®, penicillin V, Penicillin VK, PNV
phleomycin 10954 NSC 61586, NSC-61586
phloretin PDB Ligand 4285
phlorizin 4757
physostigmine Approved drug 6598 Antilirium®, eserine, physostigmine salicylate
picrotoxin 4051
picrotoxinin PDB Ligand 2291
plitidepsin Approved drug 11396 Aplidin®, aplidine, Dehydrodidemnin B
plumbagin PDB Ligand 7003 RTK1
plusbacin A3 11020
poststatin 10967 L-Val-L-Val-3-amino-2-oxo-valeryl-D-Leu-L-Val
PPAHV 2490 phorbol-12-phenylacetate-13-acetate-20-homovanillate
psilocin 11291
 
Q Back to top
quercetin PDB Ligand 5346
quinestrol Approved drug 7097 Estrovis®, W-3566
quinidine Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 2342 Quinaglute®, Quinidex®, quinidine hydrochloride
quinine Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 2510 GNF-Pf-506, Qualaquin®, Quinate®, quinine bisulphate, quinine sulfate
 
R Back to top
rancinamycin IA 11015 Rancomycin 1, U-22583, U22583
rauwolscine 136 α-yohimbine, corynanthidine, isoyohimbine, mesoyohimbine
rescinnamine Approved drug 7098
resiniferatoxin PDB Ligand 2491 RTX
[125I]resiniferatoxin Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive 2492
[3H]resiniferatoxin Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive PDB Ligand 4091
resveratrol PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 8741