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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY complete ligand list

Non-peptidic, biogenic compounds derived from living organisms and their close synthetic derivatives.
Ligand name ID Synonyms
A Back to top
abscisic acid Immunopharmacology Ligand 10362 (+/-)-(cis,trans)-abscisic acid, (+/-)-Abscisic acid, (RS)-Abscisic acid, ABA
absinthin 12458 (+)-absinthin, absynthin
aconitine 2617
agatoxin 489 2484 AG 489
ajmalicine Approved drug PDB Ligand 8746 delta-yohimbine, raubasine, rauvasan, rauwolfia alkaloid
alcuronium 341
allicin 2419
aloin 12498 aloin A/B
Altromycin B 10964
amarogentin 12459
anacardic acid 6999
apicidin Antimalarial Ligand 7495 OSI-2040
apigenin PDB Ligand 4136
aplithianine A PDB Ligand 13089 compound 1 [PMID: 37843072]
apramycin PDB Ligand 10760 EBL-1003, EL-857, EL857, nebramycin factor 2, nebramycin II
arecoline 296 methylarecaiden, methylarecaidin, taeniolin
argiotoxin PDB Ligand 4138 argiotoxin 636
Aristoteline 13176
artemisinin Antimalarial Ligand 9954 qinghaosu
artenimol Approved drug Antimalarial Ligand 9957 DHA, dihydroartemisinin, GNF-Pf-5634
artepillin C 6302
α-asarone 13278 (α)-asarone, trans-asarone
(R)-asimilobine 13235 (-)-asimilobine, R-(-)-asimilobine
atropine Approved drug 320 Atropen®, hyoscyamine
 
B Back to top
bacitracin A Approved drug 12812
bacoside A3 13094
baicalein PDB Ligand 5144 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone
baicalin PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 13076 7-D-glucuronic acid-5,6-dihydroxy-flavone, Baicalein 7-glucuronide, compound 15 [PMID: 37666112]
balanol PDB Ligand 8142 azepinostatin
batrachotoxin 2619
bekanamycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 12182 kanamycin B, nebramycin V
bengalensol 12469
benzoate 4565 benzoic acid
benzosceptrin C 13127 compound 6 [PMID: 20166736]
berberine PDB Ligand 11353 umbellatine
bergapten 12431 5-Methoxypsoralen, 5-MOP, bergaptene, Heraclin, O-Methylbergaptol
beta-gentiobiose 12452 6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose
betulinic acid PDB Ligand 3945
bicuculline PDB Ligand 2312 bicuculline methiodide
bilobalide 2366
BIO101 PDB Ligand 11987 20-Hydroxyecdysone, beta-Ecdysone, Crustecdysone, Ecdysterone, Sarconeos
biochanin A PDB Ligand 2829 4'-methylgenistein
Bis1 9572 Tz‐BBA
bisandrographolide 2502
bongkrek acid PDB Ligand 4689 BKA, bongkrekic acid, flavotoxin A
borneol 6413 (+)-borneol, isoborneol
borrelidin Antimalarial Ligand 11306 (-)-borrelidin
brucine 342 10,11-dimethoxy strychnine
 
C Back to top
caffeic acid PDB Ligand 5155
caffeine Approved drug PDB Ligand 407 Peyona®
calphostin C 5156
calyculin A 13083 (-)-calyculin A, hemicalyculin A
camphor 2422 2-bornanone, 2-camphanone, bornan-2-one
cannabichromene 11093 (+/-)-Cannabichromene, cannabichrome, CBC
cannabidiol Approved drug PDB Ligand 4150 CBD, Epidiolex®, GWP42003-P, nabiximols (CBD + THC, fixed-dose oral spray), Sativex® (CBD + THC, fixed-dose oral spray)
cannabidivarin 11092 CBDV, GWP42006
cannabigerol 11094 CBG
cannabigeroquinone 13406 CBGQ, phytocannabinoid 14 [PMID: 38408345], VCE-003
cantharidin Approved drug 13081 Ycanth® (0.7% solution, single-use topical applicator)
capreomycin IB Approved drug 13256 Capastat®
capsaicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 2486 Qutenza®
carboxyatractyloside PDB Ligand 4572 CATR
carvacrol PDB Ligand 2497
carveol 6417 L-carveol
catechin PDB Ligand 13091 (+)-catechin, catechol, cianidanol, D-Catechin
cationomycin 11002 BRN-6263205, BRN6263205, LS-52659, LS52659
celastrol PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 10386 compound 2 [PMID: 28621943]
cephalosporin P1 12330 acremonic acid
chaetocin 8388
chalcomycin 11058
chelerythrine PDB Ligand 5953 broussonpapyrine, cheleritrine, chelerythrine hydroxide, toddalin
chlorocardicin 11044
chlorogenic acid 12477 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeoyl quinic acid, chlorogenate
chrysin PDB Ligand 8789 NSC-407436
cimifugin 12555 Cimitin
cinchonine 13363 (+)-Cinchonine, D-Cinchonine
cinnamtannin B1 PDB Ligand 13186 Cinnamtannin B-1, CTB-1
citibrasine 8561 compound 7 [PMID: 21277783]
citral PDB Ligand 6327 citral a, geranial, geranialdehyde, trans-citral
Citrusinine II 11377 Citrusinine-II, compound 5 [PMID: 21277783]
CJ-15,801 Antimalarial Ligand 10610 CJ-15801
cladosporin PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 10247 asperentin
clavulanic acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 11128 BRL-14151, BRL-14151K, BRL14151, clavulanate, MM 14151
7α-Cl-ginkgolide B 1840 7α-Cl-GB
clorobiocin PDB Ligand 12127 chlorobiocin, RP 18,631
clovibactin 13080 Novo29
cocaine Approved drug PDB Ligand 2286
codeine Approved drug 1673 Codicept®, methylmorphine
cohumulone 12422 (+/-)-cohumulone
colistin Approved drug 10794 Colobreathe®, polymyxin E, Promixin®
compound 11 [PMID: 30694059] 13327 compound 1 [PMID: 23180340]
compound 5 [PMID: 10869194] 8843
conessine 8981
Corallopyronin A 11029 CorA, LS-54950, LS54950
cordycepin PDB Ligand 4630 3'-deoxyadenosine
correolide 2555
cortistatin A PDB Ligand 9885 (+)-cortistatin A, 17-epi-cortistatin A
corynanthine 5345 rauhimbine
coumestrol PDB Ligand 12437
crofelemer Approved drug 7453 Fulyzaq®, SP-303
cucurbitacin B 12432 (+)-Cucurbitacin B, Amarine, Datisca principle B
curcumin PDB Ligand 7000
cyclopamine PDB Ligand 10328 11-Deoxyjervine
cyclopiazonic acid 5350 α-cyclopiazonic acid, NSC 117181
cyclothialidine 10988 Ro 09-1437
cytisine PDB Ligand 5347 baptitoxine, cytisin, cytisinicline, sophorine
cytochalasin B PDB Ligand 5334 phomin
 
D Back to top
dactimicin 11001 Formimidoyl-fortimicin A, SF-2052, SF2052
daidzein PDB Ligand 2828 7,4'-dihydroxyisoflavone
D-(-)-Amygdalin 12451 amygdaloside, D-amygdalin, glucoprunasin, isoamygdalin
datiscetin PDB Ligand 12440
daunorubicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7063 Cerubidine®, daunomycin, FI-6339, NDC-0082-4155, RP-13057
declovanillobiocin 12128 novclobiocin 313
defibrotide Approved drug 9087 Defitelio®
1-deoxynojirimycin PDB Ligand 4642 AT-2220, duvoglustat, S-GI
deserpidine Approved drug 7064 Harmonyl®, recanescin
1,9-dideoxyforskolin 4100
difficidin 11062
digoxin Approved drug PDB Ligand 4726 Lanoxin®
dihydroergocristine 278
domoic acid PDB Ligand 4181 domoate, NSC 288031
doxorubicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7069 Adriamycin®, Caelyx® (liposomal doxorubicin), Doxil®, doxorubicin hydrochloride
D-phenyllactic acid PDB Ligand 12418 (-)-3-Phenyllactic acid, (S)-phenyllactic acid, D-PLA
dysiherbaine PDB Ligand 4185
 
E Back to top
(E)-beta-caryophyllene 13282 (-)-(E)-Caryophyllene, (-)-trans-Caryophyllene, (E)-β-caryophyllene (BCP)
ellagic acid PDB Ligand 13035 benzoaric acid, eleagic acid
Embelin PDB Ligand 11209
emetine PDB Ligand 11087
enviomycin Approved drug 13276 Tuberactin®, tuberactinomycin N
epibatidine 5348 (+)-epibatidine, CMI 488
(-)-Epicatechin PDB Ligand 12497 (2R,3R)-(-)-Epicatechin, epi-Catechin, epi-Catechol, L-Epicatechin
epicatechin gallate 12462 (-)-Epicatechin gallate, (-)-Epicatechin-3-O-gallate, epicatechin monogallate, L-Epicatechin gallate
epigallocatechin PDB Ligand 12461 (-)-EGC, (-)-Epigallocatechin
epigallocatechin-3-gallate PDB Ligand 7002 EGCG, EGCG, epigallocatechin gallate
7-epi-ginkgolide C 1848 7-epi-GC
(±)-Equol 12441 (+/-)-Equol, (R,S)-Equol
eremomycin 10959 A82846A
α-ergocryptine 271
(+/-)-Eriodictyol 12442
eriodictyol chalcone 12443 2',3,4,4',6'-Pentahydroxychalcone, Eriodictyolchalcone
erythromycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 1456 EM-A, E-Mycin®, Erythrocin®, erythromycin-A
esculetin PDB Ligand 5180 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, aesculetin, cichorigenin
eucalyptol 2464
eugenol PDB Ligand 2425
evybactin 12922 GLXC-26146
 
F Back to top
farnesol 3215 FCI 119a
fascaplysin 5969
feldamycin 10979 BMY-28565, BMY28565, U-48266
Ferrimycin A1 10966
7α-F-ginkgolide B 1841 7α-F-GB
ficellomycin 10965 U-47,929, U-47929, U47929
fisetin PDB Ligand 5182
flagellin 4931
flavone PDB Ligand 409
formate 4540 formic acid, HCOO-
forskolin PDB Ligand 5190 coleonol
forsythoside B Immunopharmacology Ligand 10303
fosmidomycin PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 9739 FR-31564
FR-49175 3150 AC1L4YI4, bis(methylthio)gliotoxin, dimethylgliotoxin, FR 49175
 
G Back to top
galangin PDB Ligand 410 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, 3,5,7-triOH-flavone, norizalpinin, NSC-407229
gallic acid PDB Ligand 5549 pyrogallol-5-carboxylic acid
garcinoic acid 10734 tocotrienoloic acid, trans-delta-tocotrienoloic acid
garcinol 7001
geraniol PDB Ligand 2467
gingerol 2428 6-Gingerol, [6]-Gingerol
ginkgolide A 1861
ginkgolide B 1862 GKB, BN 52021
ginkgolide C 1863 BN 52022
ginkgolide J 1864
ginsenoside Rg3 7658 (20S)-ginsenoside Rg3
gluconate 4519
glycyrrhizin 4688
goitrin 12495 (±)-goitrin, DL-Goitrin
gossypol PDB Ligand 4204
grandinin 12436
grassystatin A 8674
grayanotoxin III 2628
grifolic acid 5588 ilicicolinic acid B
grifolic acid methyl ether 5589
grosheimin 12468 grossheimin
guggulsterone 2745 E-guggulsterone, guggulsterones E, pregna-4,17-diene-3,16-dione
guvacine 4691
 
H Back to top
harmaline 13140
harmine PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 9352
hedamycin 10958 antibiotic B 26,158, B26158, NSC-70929
helvolic acid 12329 fumigacin
herbimycin A 5984
hesperetin PDB Ligand 10953 3',5,7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone, NP-13, NSC-57654
himbacine 324
homoeriodictyol 12444 (+/-)-5,7,4'-Trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone, (+/-)-Homoeriodictyol
Honokiol PDB Ligand 11610
HS-142-1 4952 HS142-1
α-humulene PDB Ligand 13236 alpha-caryophyllene, alpha-Humulene, humulene
3β-hydroxydihydrocostunolide 12472
6-Hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavone Immunopharmacology Ligand 9878 UFM-24, UFM24
ω-Hydroxyemodin 11005 Citreorosein, omega-Hydroxyemodin
5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural PDB Ligand 10939 5HMF
hymeglusin 5886 antibiotic 1233A, F-244, L-659,699
hyperforin 2764
hypericin 11248
hypoglaucin A 842 (-)-hypoglaucine A
 
I Back to top
ibogaine PDB Ligand 13148 (-)-Ibogaine, (5β)-12-methoxyibogamine, 12-Methoxyibogamine
ibotenic acid 1371 ibotenate
icariside II 10686 baohuoside I
idarubicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7083 Idamycin®, IMI-30, Zavedos®
indanomycin 10949 X-14547A
inecalcitol 7747 TX522
ingenol mebutate Approved drug PDB Ligand 7443 PEP-005, Picato®
irigenol 11564 compound 4 [PMID: 28621943], UI1956
Isochlorogenic acid A 12548 3,5-DCQA, 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid
Isochlorogenic acid B 12549 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-DICQA
isosakuranetin 10299 4'-Methylnaringenin, naringenin 4'-methyl ether
isovanillobiocin 12129 novclobiocin 312
 
J Back to top
jobosic acid 13405 compound 1 [PMID: 38781491]
joro spider toxin 4229
josamycin Approved drug 12924 kitasamycin A3, leucomycin A3, turimycin A5
 
K Back to top
K-252a 336 K252a, ST50826373, staurosporine aglycone
kaempferitrin 13277 kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside, lespedin, lespenefril
kaempferol PDB Ligand 11052 Robigenin
kainate 4231
kallstroemin D 843
kanamycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 12132 kanamycin A
Katanosin B 10970 Lysobactin
kibdelomycin A 11016
kuwanon H 622 kuwanone H
 
L Back to top
lactivicin 11022 compound 1 [PMID: 17676039], LTV
lactucopicrin 12499 lactopicrin, lactupicrin
L-azetidine-2-carboxylate PDB Ligand 4686
leinamycin 11041 DC-107, DC107
linalool 2469
(S)-liquiritigenin PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 8899
lovastatin Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 2739 (+)-mevinolin, 6α-methylcompactin, Mevacor®
LPS 5019 lipopolysaccharide derived from Gram-negative bacteria
luminamicin 11053 coloradocin, LS-90907
lupulone 12445 beta-Bitter acid, beta-Lupulic acid, Lupolon
lutein 13099 E 161b, xanthophyll
luteolin PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 5215
lysergic acid 139 (+)-lysergic acid, D-lysergic acid, isolysergic acid
lysinomicin 10969
 
M Back to top
malvidin-3-glucoside 12427 Enin, Malvidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, Malvidin 3-O-glucoside, Oenin
(-)-menthol Approved drug 2430 l-menthol, levomenthol
mersacidin 11014 M87 1551, M87-1551
mescaline 13139 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenethylamine, mescalin, mezcalin, Tmpea
meso-DAP PDB Ligand 5021 meso-diaminopimeilic acid
methoxsalen Approved drug PDB Ligand 12457 8-Methoxypsoralen, 8-MOP, xanthotoxin, zanthotoxin
6-methoxysakuranetin 9111 compound 33 [PMID: 21650152]
6-Methylflavone 12466 6-methyl-2-phenylchromen-4-one
methyllycaconitine PDB Ligand 4005
microcystin-LR 4735 toxin-LR
micronomicin Approved drug 12162 gentamicin C2b, Sagamicin®, XK-62-2
midecamycin Approved drug 13158 espinomycin A, platenomycin B1, rubimycin, SF-837, turimycin P3
mithramycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 8394 aureolic acid, Mithracin®, mithramycin A, MMA
mitomycin C Approved drug 7089 Mitosol®, NSC-26980
mitragynine 13149 (-)-Mitragynine
morin PDB Ligand 411 aurantica, calico yellow, toxylon pomiferum
morphine Approved drug PDB Ligand 1627 morphine sulfate, Ms Contin®, Oramorph®
muramyl dipeptide PDB Ligand 5024 MDP
muscarine 3996
muscimol 4259 agarin, pantherine
mycophenolic acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 6832 ERL-080, Myfortic® (mycophenolate sodium)
myricetin PDB Ligand 13074 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone, cannabiscetin
 
N Back to top
napsamycin C 11008
napsamycin D 11009
narceine 13150 narcein
naringenin 10298 BE-14348A, naringetol
naringin PDB Ligand 4738
neferine 13234 (-)-Neferine
neomycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 709 Neo-Rx®, neomycin sulfate
neopyrrolomycin 10962
7α-N3-ginkgolide B 1842 7α-N3-GB
7α-NHEt-ginkgolide B 1844 7α-NHEt-GB
7α-NH2-ginkgolide B 1843 7α-NH2-GB
7α-NHMe-ginkgolide B 1845 7α-NHMe-GB
N-methyllaurotetanine 13242 2-O-methylboldine, Boldine 2-methyl ether, Lauroscholtzine, Rogersine
nobiletin 12446 Hexamethoxyflavone
nocardicin A 12295
nodusmicin 11019 nodusmicin 1
nojirimycin 10951 5-amino-5-deoxy-D-glucopyranose, D-gluco-piperidinose
nordihydroguiaretic acid Approved drug 4265 NDGA, Actinex®
noscapine PDB Ligand 10212
novclobiocin 101 12131
novobiocin Approved drug PDB Ligand 12021 Albamycin®, cardelmycin, cathomycin, PA 93, streptonivicin
 
O Back to top
7α-OAc-ginkgolide B 1846 7α-OAc-GB
10-OBn-epi-ginkgolide C