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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY complete ligand list

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All ligands in the database which are included in the World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines (23rd list, 2023).

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Ligand name ID Synonyms
A Back to top
abacavir Approved drug PDB Ligand 11152 ABC, 1592U89, Ziagen®
abiraterone PDB Ligand 6745
acetazolamide Approved drug PDB Ligand 6792 Diamox®
acetic acid PDB Ligand 1058 acetate, ethanoic acid
acetylcysteine Approved drug PDB Ligand 10945 Ilube® (eye drops), N-A-C Sustain®, N-Acetyl-cysteine, N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC, Parvolex®
aciclovir Approved drug PDB Ligand 4829 acyclovir, Zovirax®
adalimumab Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 4860 D2E7, Humira®
(±)-adrenaline 509 adrenaline, epinephrine
allopurinol Approved drug 6795 Aloprim®, BW-56-158, BW-56158, Zyloprim®
amikacin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10894 Amikin®, AMK, Arikayce liposomal®, BB-K8
amiloride Approved drug PDB Ligand 2421 amiloride HCl, Midamor®
amiodarone Approved drug PDB Ligand 2566 amiodarone hydrochloride, Cordarone®
amitriptyline Approved drug PDB Ligand 200 amitryptiline, Elavil®, Endep®
amlodipine Approved drug 6981 amlodipine besylate, amlodipine maleate, Copalia® (amlodipine + valsartan), Katerzia® (amlodipine oral suspension, 1 mg/mL), Norvasc®, UK-4834011
amodiaquine Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 10018 Alphaquine®, Amdaquine®, Amoquin®, Camoquin®, Flavoquine®
amoxicillin Approved drug 10895 Amoxil®, BRL-2333, co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid), Moxatag®, NSC-277174, Trimox®
ampicillin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10896 aminobenzylpenicillin, KS-R1, Penbritin®, Polycillin, Principen®
anastrozole Approved drug 5137 Arimidex®
aprepitant Approved drug PDB Ligand 3490 Aponvie®, Emend®
artemether Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 9955 β-artemether, beta-artemether
artenimol Approved drug Antimalarial Ligand 9957 DHA, dihydroartemisinin, GNF-Pf-5634
artesunate Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 9956
aspirin Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 4139 Acetophen®, acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin®
atazanavir Approved drug PDB Ligand 11138 ATV, BMS-232632, CGP 73547, latazanavir, Reyataz®, zrivada
atracurium Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 9537 atracurium besilate, atracurium dibesylate, BW 33A, Tracrium®
atropine Approved drug 320 Atropen®, hyoscyamine
avibactam Approved drug PDB Ligand 10761 AVI, NXL 104, NXL-104, NXL104
azathioprine Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7120 Azasan®, BW-57-322, Imuran®, Jayempi®
azithromycin Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 6510
B Back to top
beclometasone Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 7059 beclomethasone, SCH-18020W
bedaquiline Approved drug PDB Ligand 11171 BDQ, compound 1a [PMID: 17496888], R-207910, Sirturo®, TMC-207, TMC207
bendamustine Approved drug 7478 Levact®, SDX-105, Treanda®
betamethasone Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7061 SCH-4831
bevacizumab Approved drug 6771 Avastin®, rhuMAb-VEGF
bicalutamide Approved drug 2863 Calutide®, Casodex®
biperiden Approved drug 7128 Akineton®, biperiden HCl, biperiden lactate
bisoprolol Approved drug 7129 CL-297939, EMD-33512, Zebeta®
bortezomib Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 6391 peptide boronate, PS-341, Velcade®
budesonide Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7434 Entocort®, Eohilia® (budesonide oral suspension), Jorveza®, Pulmicort®, S-1320, Uceris®
bupivacaine Approved drug 2397 DL-Bupivacaine, Exparel®, Marcain®, Posimir®, Sensorcaine®, W-7, Xaracoll®
bupropion Approved drug 7135 amfebutamone, BW-323, Wellbutrin®, Zyban®
C Back to top
caffeine Approved drug PDB Ligand 407 Peyona®
calcipotriol Approved drug PDB Ligand 2778 calcipotriene, Calcitrene®, Dovonex®, MC903
capecitabine Approved drug 6799 Ro-09-1978-000, Ro-091978000, Xeloda®
carbamazepine Approved drug PDB Ligand 5339 calepsin, Carnexiv®, Tegretol®
carbetocin Approved drug 11169 Pabal®
carbidopa Approved drug PDB Ligand 5159 Duodopa®, Lodosyn®, MK 486
carboplatin Approved drug 7624 JM-8, Paraplatin®
cefazolin 10935 Ancef®, cephazolin, CEZ, Kefzol®, SK&F-41558
cefiderocol Approved drug 10776 compound 3 [PMID: 29960205], Fetcroja®, Fetroja®, GSK-2696266, GSK2696266, RSC 649266, RSC-649266, RSC649266, S-649266
cefixime Approved drug PDB Ligand 10898 (E)-Cefixime, Cefspan®, CFIX, FK-027, FR-17027, Suprax®
cefotaxime Approved drug PDB Ligand 10893 Claforan®, Ru-24756
ceftazidime Approved drug 10762 CAZ, Fortaz®, Fortum®, GR 20263, GR-20263, GR20263, LY-139381, LY139381, Pentacef®, Tazicef®
ceftriaxone Approved drug 5326 Rocephin®
cefuroxime Approved drug PDB Ligand 10900 Ceftin®, CXM, Kefurox®, Zinacef®
cephalexin Approved drug 4832 cefalexin, Ceporex®, Keflex®
chlorambucil Approved drug PDB Ligand 7143 chlorbutin, Leukeran®
chloramphenicol Approved drug PDB Ligand 10901 Brolene®, chloromycetin
chloroquine Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 5535 Aralen®, chloraquine, Malaquin®
chlorpromazine Approved drug PDB Ligand 83 chlorpromazine HCl, Largactil®, Thorazine®
ciprofloxacin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10902 BAY-O-9867, BAY-O9867, Cetraxal®, Ciloxan®, Cipro®, CPFX, Proquin XR
cisplatin Approved drug 5343 Platinol®
clarithromycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10903 6-O-methylerythromycin, A-56268, ABBOTT-56268, Biaxin®, Klaricid®, TE-031
clavulanic acid Approved drug PDB Ligand 11128 BRL-14151, BRL-14151K, BRL14151, clavulanate, MM 14151
clindamycin Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 10607
clofazimine Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 9184 Lamprene®
clomiphene Approved drug 4159 Androxal®, Clomid®, clomifene, MER-41, MRL-41, Omifin®, RMI-16289
clomipramine Approved drug PDB Ligand 2398 Anafranil®, G-34586
clopidogrel Approved drug PDB Ligand 7150 Iscover®, Plavix®, SR-25990C
clotrimazole Approved drug PDB Ligand 2330 Canesten®, Lotrimin®
cloxacillin Approved drug PDB Ligand 11126 BRL-1621, BRL1621, chloroxacillin, Methocillin S, Syntarpen®, Tegopen®
clozapine Approved drug 38 Clorazil®, HF-1854
codeine Approved drug 1673 Codicept®, methylmorphine
colistin Approved drug 10794 Colobreathe®, polymyxin E, Promixin®
cortisol Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 2868 Acticort®, Efmody®, Plenadren®
crisantaspase Approved drug 7347 asparaginase, Elspar®, L-asparaginase, L-asparagine amidohydrolase
cyclizine Approved drug 7151 Marezine®
cyclophosphamide Approved drug 7154 cytophosphane, Cytoxan®, Endoxan®
cyclosporin A Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 1024 ciclosporin, cyclosporine, cyclosporine A, Ikervis® (opthalmic solution), Neoral®, Sandimmun®, Verkazia® (opthalmic solution)
cytarabine Approved drug PDB Ligand 4827 Cytosar®, DepoCyte®, U-19920
D Back to top
dabigatran PDB Ligand 6380
dacarbazine Approved drug 9075 DTIC-Dome®
daclatasvir Approved drug 11266 BMS-790052, BMS790052, Daklinza®
dapsone Approved drug Antimalarial Ligand 10934 Aczone®, NSC-6091
darunavir Approved drug PDB Ligand 11243 DRV, Prezista®, TMC114, UIC-94017
dasabuvir Approved drug 11270 ABT-333, ABT333, Exviera®
dasatinib Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 5678 BMS 345825, BMS 354825, BMS 35482513, Sprycel®
daunorubicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7063 Cerubidine®, daunomycin, FI-6339, NDC-0082-4155, RP-13057
D-cycloserine Approved drug PDB Ligand 9489 Seromycin®
delamanid Approved drug 12876 Deltyba®, OPC-67683
desmopressin Approved drug 2182 1-deamino,D-AVP, [deamino-Cys1,D-Arg8]vasopressin, dDAVP, Noctiva®
dexamethasone Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 2768 Decadron®, desametasone, fluormethylprednisolone
diazepam Approved drug PDB Ligand 3364 Diastat®, LA-III, Valium®, WY-3467
diazoxide Approved drug PDB Ligand 2409 Proglycem®, SCH-6783, SRG-95213
digoxin Approved drug PDB Ligand 4726 Lanoxin®
docetaxel Approved drug PDB Ligand 6809 Docecad®, docetaxel anhydrous, EmDOC, Taxotere®
dolutegravir Approved drug PDB Ligand 7365 GSK 1349572, GSK-1349572, GSK1349572, S-349572, Tivicay®
dopamine Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 940 3-hydroxytyramine
doxorubicin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7069 Adriamycin®, Caelyx® (liposomal doxorubicin), Doxil®, doxorubicin hydrochloride
doxycycline Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 6464 BMY-28689, Monodox®, Vibramycin®
E Back to top
efavirenz Approved drug PDB Ligand 11287 DMP-266, DMP266, EFV, L-743,726, L-743726, Stocrin®, Sustiva®
eflornithine Approved drug 5176 2-(difluoromethyl)ornithine (DMFO), difluoromethylornithine, Ornidyl®, Vaniqa®
empagliflozin Approved drug PDB Ligand 4754 BI 10773, Jardiance®
emtricitabine Approved drug PDB Ligand 11244 FTC, 524W91, BW-524W91, Coviracil®, Emtriva®
enalapril Approved drug 6322 Enaladex®, Vasotec®
enoxaparin Approved drug 6811 Clexane®, enoxaparin sodium, Lovenox®, PK-10169, RP-54563
ephedrine Approved drug 556 Emerphed® (ephedrine sulfate injection)
ergometrine Approved drug 148 ergonovine, Ergotrate®, Methergine®
erlotinib Approved drug PDB Ligand 4920 NSC 718781, OSI 744, OSI-774, R 1415, Tarceva®
erythromycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 1456 EM-A, E-Mycin®, Erythrocin®, erythromycin-A
ethambutol Approved drug PDB Ligand 12996 Myambutol®
ethinylestradiol Approved drug PDB Ligand 7071 17α-ethynylestradiol, ethinyl estradiol
ethionamide Approved drug PDB Ligand 12954 1314 TH, Bayer 5312, Trecator®
ethosuximide Approved drug 7182 CI-366, CN-10395, PM-671, Zarontin®
etonogestrel Approved drug 7590 3-keto-desogestrel, Implanon®, Nexplanon®, ORG-3236
etoposide Approved drug PDB Ligand 6815 (-)-etoposide, Etopophos®, Toposar®, trans-etoposide, VePesid®, VP 16-213, VP-16
everolimus Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 5889 Afinitor®, Certican®, RAD-001, RAD001, rapamycin, 42-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-, Zortress®
F Back to top
fentanyl Approved drug PDB Ligand 1626 Abstral®, Actiq®, Durogesic®, Effentora®, MCN-JR-4263-49, R-4263, Sublimaze®
filgrastim Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 6968 Filcad®, Imumax ®, R-METHUG-CSF
fludarabine Approved drug 4802 2-F-Ara-A, CCRIS 3382, F-Ara-A, Fludara®
fludrocortisone Approved drug PDB Ligand 2873 9α-Flourocortisol, Florinef®
5-fluorouracil Approved drug PDB Ligand 4789 Adrucil®, Carac®
fluoxetine Approved drug 203 Prozac®
fluphenazine Approved drug 204 Prolixin®
folic acid PDB Ligand 4563 folate
fomepizole Approved drug PDB Ligand 11705 4-methylpyrazole, Antizol®
formoterol Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 3465 BD-40A, CGP-25827A, Foradil®, Oxeze/Oxis®, YM-08316
fosfomycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10813 Monurol®, phosphomycin, phosphonomycin, Veramina®
furosemide Approved drug PDB Ligand 4839 dihydroflumethiazide, frusemide, Lasix®, methforylthiazidine
G Back to top
gemcitabine Approved drug PDB Ligand 4793 gemcitabine hydrochloride, Gemzar®
gentamicin Approved drug 2427 Garamycin®, gentamicin sulfate
glecaprevir Approved drug PDB Ligand 11267 ABT-493, ABT493, Maviret®, Mavyret® (glecaprevir + pibrentasvir)
glucagon  {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Approved drug 1136
H Back to top
haloperidol Approved drug PDB Ligand 86 Haldol®, MCN-JR-1625, R-1625, Serenace®
halothane Approved drug 2401 Fluothane®
heparin Approved drug 4214 HepFlush®
hydralazine Approved drug PDB Ligand 7326 Apresoline®
hydrochlorothiazide Approved drug PDB Ligand 4836 Apo-hydro®
hydroxychloroquine Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 7198 Dolquine®, Plaquenil®
hydroxyurea Approved drug PDB Ligand 6822 Droxia®, Hydrea®, hydroxycarbamide, Siklos®, SQ-1089, Xromi®
I Back to top
ibrutinib Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 6912 Imbruvica®, PCI-32765
ibuprofen Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 2713 Advil®, Brufen®, ibuprofen lysine, ibuprofen sodium, Motrin®, Nurofen®, U-18573
ifosfamide Approved drug 7201 Holoxan®, Ifex®, MJF-9325, Z-4942
imatinib Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 5687 CGP 57148, Gleevec®, Glivec®, STI571
insulin  {Sp: Human} Approved drug 5012
ipratropium Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 325 Atrovent®, Ipraxa®
irinotecan Approved drug PDB Ligand 6823 (+)-irinotecan, biotecan, Campto®, Camptosar®, CPT-11, irinotecan hydrochloride, Onivyde®
isoflurane Approved drug 2505 Forane®
isoniazid Approved drug PDB Ligand 12761 isonicotinic acid hydrazide, Nydrazid®, Rimifon®
isosorbide dinitrate Approved drug 7051 Dilatrate-Sr®, ISDN, Isordil®
itraconazole Approved drug 11426 ITZ, R-51211, R51211, Sporanox®
ivermectin Approved drug 2373 Heartgard®, ivermectin B1a, MK-933, Sklice®, Soolantra®
K Back to top
ketamine Approved drug 4233 Ketalar, ketamine HCl
L Back to top
lamivudine Approved drug PDB Ligand 12673 BCH-189, BCH189, Epivir®, GR-109714X
lamotrigine Approved drug 2622 Lamictal®
L-ascorbic acid PDB Ligand 4781 vitamin C
latanoprost (isopropyl ester) Approved drug 1961 PHXA-41, XA-41, Xalatan®
L-cycloserine Approved drug 9488 levcycloserine, Seromycin®
ledipasvir Approved drug 11271 GS-5885, GS5885, Harvoni® (ledipasvir + sofosbuvir)
lenalidomide Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7331 CC-5013, CDC-501, Revlimid®
leuprolide Approved drug 1175 ABBOTT-43818, Camcevi®, Fensolvi® (leuprolide acetate injectable suspension), Lupron®, TAP-144
levamisole Approved drug 7210 Ergamisol®, R-12564
levodopa Approved drug PDB Ligand 3639 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, Inbrija® (levodopa inhalation powder), L-DOPA, Sinemet®
levofloxacin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10911 DR-3355, Levaquin®, Quinsair®
levonorgestrel Approved drug PDB Ligand 2881 l-norgestrel, Norplant®
Li+ Approved drug 5212 lithium ion
lidocaine Approved drug PDB Ligand 2623 Xylocaine®
linezolid Approved drug PDB Ligand 10827 PNU-100766, PNU100766, U-100,766, U-100766, ZLD, Zyvox®
lisinopril Approved drug PDB Ligand 6360 Prinivil®, Zestril®
L-α-methyldopa Approved drug 5217 Aldomet®, Aldoril®, Dopamet®, L-α-Methyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
loperamide Approved drug 7215 Fortasec®, Imodium®, R-18553
lopinavir Approved drug PDB Ligand 11504 A-157378-0, A-1573780, ABT-378, ABT378, Aluviran®, Kaletra® (LPV+RTV)
loratadine Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7216 Claritin®, SCH-29851
lorazepam Approved drug 5884 Ativan®, Orfidal®
losartan Approved drug PDB Ligand 590 Cozaar®, DuP 753, MK-954
lumefantrine Approved drug Antimalarial Ligand 9969 benflumetol
M Back to top
medroxyprogesterone Approved drug 2879 MPA, hydroxymethylprogesterone
mefloquine Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 4252 GNF-Pf-5544, Lariam®, Ro-21-5998-001, WR-142490
melphalan Approved drug 7620 Alkeran®, CB-3025, L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM), L-sarcolysine, melfalan, Phelinun®, Sarcolysin®
mercaptopurine Approved drug PDB Ligand 7226 6-mercaptopurine, Purinethol®, Xaluprine®
meropenem Approved drug PDB Ligand 10829 ICI 194,660, Merrem®, SM-7338
metformin Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 4779 Glucophage®, LA-6023
methadone Approved drug 5458 (±)-methadone, dl-methadone, Dolophine HCL®, methadone HCl, Methadose®
methimazole Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 6649 Tapazole®, Thiamazole®
methotrexate Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 4815 Abitrexate®, amethopterin, Nordimet®, Rasuvo®
methylprednisolone Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7088 Medrol®, U-67590A
metoclopramide Approved drug 241 Gimoti® (metoclopramide nasal spray), metaclopromide, methochlopramide, metochlopramide, metoclopramide hydrochloride, Reglan®
metronidazole Approved drug PDB Ligand 10914 BAY-5360, BAYER 5360, Flagyl®, Metrogel®, ROZEX®
miconazole Approved drug 2449 florid(nitrate), Monistat®, R-14889
midazolam Approved drug PDB Ligand 3342 Buccolam®, Dormicum®, Nayzilam®, USL261 (nasal spray formulation), Versed®
mifepristone Approved drug PDB Ligand Immunopharmacology Ligand 2805 Mifeprex®, RU-486, RU486
miltefosine Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 11355 D-18506, D18506, Impavido®, Miltex®, n-hexadecylphosphorylcholine
misoprostol (methyl ester) Approved drug 1936 Arthrotec®, BRN 4155643, CCRIS 6859, Cytotec®, HSDB 3573, SC 29333
morphine Approved drug PDB Ligand 1627 morphine sulfate, Ms Contin®, Oramorph®
moxifloxacin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10915 Avelox®, BAY-12-8039, BAY-128039, BAY128039, MFX, MOXIVIG® (opthalmic solution)
mupirocin Approved drug PDB Ligand Antimalarial Ligand 10916 Bactroban®, BRL-4910A, BRL-4910F, Centany®, pseudomonic acid
N Back to top
naloxone Approved drug 1638 (-)-naloxone, Kloxxado® (naloxone hydrochloride nasal spray), l-naloxone, Narcan®, Nyxoid®
neostigmine Approved drug 8993 Prostigmin®
nevirapine Approved drug PDB Ligand 12676 BI-RG-587, BIRG-587, BIRG587, NVP, Viramune®
niclosamide Approved drug PDB Ligand 8494 VU0243604
nifedipine Approved drug PDB Ligand 2514 Adalat®, BAY-A-1040, Procardia®
nifurtimox Approved drug 12364 BAY 2502, BAY A2502, Bayer 2502, Lampit®
nilotinib Approved drug PDB Ligand 5697 AMN 107, AMN107, Tasigna®
nitrofurantoin Approved drug PDB Ligand 10917 Furadantin®, Macrobid®, Macrodantin®, Nitro Macro®, NSC-2107, NSC-44150
nitroglycerin Approved drug PDB Ligand 7053 glyceryl trinitrate, Glytrin®, Minitran®, Rectogesic®
nivolumab Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7335 BMS-936558, MDX-1106, ONO-4538, Opdivo®
norethisterone Approved drug PDB Ligand 2880 Micronor®, norethindrone, Noriday®
O Back to top
ofloxacin Approved drug 10918 DL-8280, Exocin® (eye drops), Floxin®, HOE-280, OFX, Tarivid®
ombitasvir Approved drug 11272 ABT-267, ABT267, compound 38 [PMID: 24400777], Technivie® (ombitasvir + paritaprevir + ritonavir), Viekirax® (ombitasvir + paritaprevir + ritonavir; EU)
omeprazole Approved drug 4279 H 168/68, Losec®, Prilosec®
ondansetron Approved drug PDB Ligand 2290 GR-38032F/GR-38032, ondansetron hydrochloride, ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate, Zofran®
oseltamivir Approved drug 11427 GS-4104, GS4104, RO-640796, RO640796, Tamiflu®, Tamvir®
oxaliplatin Approved drug 7433 ACT-078, Eloxatin®
oxytocin  {Sp: Human, Mouse, Rat} Approved drug 2174 OT, Otx, Pitocin®, Syntocinon®
P Back to top
paclitaxel Approved drug PDB Ligand 2770 7-epipaclitaxel, Abraxane® (albumin-bound suspension), Taxol®
paliperidone Approved drug 7258 9-hydroxyrisperidone, Invega®, Ro-76477, Ro-92670
paracetamol Approved drug PDB Ligand 5239 acetaminophen, N-Acetyl-p-aminophenol, Panadol®, Tylenol®
paritaprevir Approved drug 11273 ABT-450, ABT450, veruprevir (deprecated INN), Viekirax® (ombitasvir + paritaprevir + ritonavir; EU)
paromomycin Approved drug PDB Ligand 12160 aminosidine, catenulin, Humatin®, monomycin A
peginterferon alfa-2b Approved drug Immunopharmacology Ligand 7462 PegIntron®, Sylatron®
penicillamine Approved drug